Please note: this site relies heavily on the use of javascript. Without a javascript-enabled browser, this site will not function correctly. Please enable javascript and reload the page, or switch to a different browser.
37  structures 264  species 0  interactions 763  sequences 13  architectures

Family: Hormone_3 (PF00159)

Summary: Pancreatic hormone peptide

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Pancreatic hormone". More...

Pancreatic hormone Edit Wikipedia article

Redirect to:

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Pancreatic hormone peptide Provide feedback

No Pfam abstract.

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR001955

Pancreatic hormone (PP) [ PUBMED:6107857 ] is a peptide synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langherhans, which acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.

The hormone is produced as a larger propeptide, which is enzymatically cleaved to yield the mature active peptide: this is 36 amino acids in length [ PUBMED:3031687 ] and has an amidated C terminus [ PUBMED:2599092 ]. The hormone has a globular structure, residues 2-8 forming a left-handed poly-proline-II-like helix, residues 9-13 a beta turn, and 14-32 an alpha-helix, held close to the first helix by hydrophobic interactions [ PUBMED:3031687 ]. Unlike glucagon, another peptide hormone, the structure of pancreatic peptide is preserved in aqueous solution [ PUBMED:2067973 ]. Both N and C termini are required for activity: receptor binding and activation functions may reside in the N and C termini respectively [ PUBMED:3031687 ].

Pancreatic hormone is part of a wider family of active peptides that includes:

  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY or melanostatin) [ PUBMED:3031687 ], one of the most abundant peptides in the mammalian nervous system. NPY is implicated in the control of feeding and the secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
  • Peptide YY (PYY) [ PUBMED:6953409 ]. PPY is a gut peptide that inhibits exocrine pancreatic secretion, has a vasoconstrictor action and inhibits jejunal and colonic mobility. Known as goannatyrotoxin-Vere1 in the venom of the pygmy desert monitor lizard (Varanus eremius) where it has a triphasic action: rapid biphasic hypertension followed by prolonged hypotension in prey animals [ PUBMED:20631207 ].
  • Various NPY and PYY-like polypeptides from fish and amphibians [ PUBMED:1459125 , PUBMED:1620652 ].
  • Neuropeptide F (NPF) from invertebrates such as worms and snail.
  • Skin peptide Tyr-Tyr (SPYY) from the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. SPYY shows a large spectra of antibacterial and antifungal activity.
  • Polypeptide MY (peptide methionine-tyrosine). A regulatory peptide from the intestine of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) [ PUBMED:2070789 ].

All these peptides are 36 to 39 amino acids long. Like most active peptides, their C-terminal is amidated and they are synthesized as larger protein precursors.

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

Loading domain graphics...


We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

Representative proteomes UniProt
Jalview View  View  View  View  View  View  View 
HTML View  View           
PP/heatmap 1 View           

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

Representative proteomes UniProt

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

Representative proteomes UniProt
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...


This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: hormone3;
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Sonnhammer ELL
Number in seed: 27
Number in full: 763
Average length of the domain: 35.60 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 56 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 30.92 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 28.7 28.7
Trusted cut-off 28.9 28.9
Noise cut-off 28.2 28.6
Model length: 36
Family (HMM) version: 20
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

Sunburst controls


Weight segments by...

Change the size of the sunburst


Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


Align selected sequences to HMM

Generate a FASTA-format file

Clear selection

This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

Loading sunburst data...

Tree controls


The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...


Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.


For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Hormone_3 domain has been found. There are 37 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

Loading structure mapping...