Summary: Histidine phosphatase superfamily (branch 1)
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Phosphatase Edit Wikipedia article
A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol. Because a phosphatase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of its substrate, it is a subcategory of hydrolases. Phosphatase enzymes are essential to many biological functions, because phosphorylation (e.g. by protein kinases) and dephosphorylation (by phosphatases) serve diverse roles in cellular regulation and signaling. Whereas phosphatases remove phosphate groups from molecules, kinases catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups to molecules from ATP. Together, kinases and phosphatases direct a form of post-translational modification that is essential to the cell's regulatory network. Phosphatase enzymes are not to be confused with phosphorylase enzymes, which catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from hydrogen phosphate to an acceptor. Due to their prevalence in cellular regulation, phosphatases are an area of interest for pharmaceutical research.
Phosphatases catalyze the hydrolysis of a phosphomonoester, removing a phosphate moiety from the substrate. Water is split in the reaction, with the -OH group attaching to the phosphate ion, and the H+ protonating the hydroxyl group of the other product. The net result of the reaction is the destruction of a phosphomonoester and the creation of both a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl group.
Phosphatases are able to dephosphorylate seemingly different sites on their substrates with great specificity. Identifying the "phosphatase code," that is, the mechanisms and rules that govern substrate recognition for phosphatases, is still a work in progress, but the first comparative analysis of all the protein phosphatases encoded across nine eukaryotic 'phosphatome' genomes is now available. Studies reveal that so called "docking interactions" play a significant role in substrate binding. A phosphatase recognizes and interacts with various motifs (elements of secondary structure) on its substrate; these motifs bind with low affinity to docking sites on the phosphatase, which are not contained within its active site. Although each individual docking interaction is weak, many interactions occur simultaneously, conferring a cumulative effect on binding specificity. Docking interactions can also allosterically regulate phosphatases and thus influence their catalytic activity.
In contrast to kinases, phosphatase enzymes recognize and catalyze a wider array of substrates and reactions. For example, in humans, Ser/Thr kinases outnumber Ser/Thr phosphatases by a factor of ten. To some extent, this disparity results from incomplete knowledge of the human phosphatome, that is, the complete set of phosphatases expressed in a cell, tissue, or organism. Many phosphatases have yet to be discovered, and for numerous known phosphatases, a substrate has yet to be identified. However, among well-studied phosphatase/kinase pairs, phosphatases exhibit greater variety than their kinase counterparts in both form and function; this may result from the lesser degree of conservation among phosphatases.
A protein phosphatase is an enzyme that dephosphorylates an amino acid residue of its protein substrate. Whereas protein kinases act as signaling molecules by phosphorylating proteins, phosphatases remove the phosphate group, which is essential if the system of intracellular signaling is to be able to reset for future use. The tandem work of kinases and phosphatases constitute a significant element of the cellâ€™s regulatory network. Phosphorylation (and dephosphorylation) is among the most common modes of posttranslational modification in proteins, and it is estimated that, at any given time, up to 30% of all proteins are phosphorylated. Two notable protein phosphatases are PP2A and PP2B. PP2A is involved in multiple regulatory processes, such as DNA replication, metabolism, transcription, and development. PP2B, also called calcineurin, is involved in the proliferation of T cells; because of this, it is the target of some drugs that seek to suppress the immune system.
A nucleotidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a nucleotide, forming a nucleoside and a phosphate ion. Nucleotidases are essential for cellular homeostasis, because they are partially responsible for maintaining a balanced ratio of nucleotides to nucleosides. Some nucleotidases function outside the cell, creating nucleosides that can be transported into the cell and used to regenerate nucleotides via salvage pathways. Inside the cell, nucleotidases may help to maintain energy levels under stress conditions. A cell deprived of oxygen and nutrients may catabolize more nucleotides to boost levels of nucleoside triphosphates such as ATP, the primary energy currency of the cell.
Phosphatases can also act on carbohydrates, such as intermediates in gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway wherein glucose is created from noncarbohydrate precursors; the pathway is essential because many tissues can only derive energy from glucose. Two phosphatases, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, catalyze irreversible steps in gluconeogenesis. Each cleaves a phosphate group from a six-carbon sugar phosphate intermediate.
Within the larger class of phosphatase, the Enzyme Commission recognizes 104 distinct enzyme families. Phosphatases are classified by substrate specificity and sequence homology in catalytic domains. Despite their classification into over one hundred families, all phosphatases still catalyze the same general hydrolysis reaction.
In in-vitro experiments, phosphatase enzymes seem to recognize many different substrates, and one substrate may be recognized by many different phosphatases. However, when experiments have been carried out in-vivo, phosphatase enzymes have been shown to be incredibly specific. In some cases, a protein phosphatase (i.e. one defined by its recognition of protein substrates) can catalyze the dephosphorylation of nonprotein substrates. Similarly, dual-specificity tyrosine phosphatases can dephosphorylate not only tyrosine residues, but also serine residues. Thus, one phosphatase can exhibit the qualities of multiple phosphatase families.
- Acid phosphatase
- Alkaline phosphatase
- Endonuclease/Exonuclease/phosphatase family
- Protein phosphatase
- Protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A)
- "ENZYME: 3.1.3.-". enzyme.expasy.org. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
- Liberti, Susanna; Sacco, Francesca; Calderone, Alberto; Perfetto, Livia; Iannuccelli, Marta; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Palma, Anita; Nardozza, Aurelio P. (2013-01-01). "HuPho: the human phosphatase portal" (PDF). FEBS Journal. 280 (2): 379â€“387. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2012.08712.x. PMID 22804825.
- Sacco, Francesca; Perfetto, Livia; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni (2012-08-14). "The human phosphatase interactome: An intricate family portrait". FEBS Letters. 586 (17): 2732â€“2739. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2012.05.008. PMC 3437441. PMID 22626554.
- Li, Xun; Wilmanns, Matthias; Thornton, Janet; KÃ¶hn, Maja (2013-05-14). "Elucidating Human Phosphatase-Substrate Networks". Science Signaling. 6 (275): rs10. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2003203. PMID 23674824.
- Bodenmiller, Bernd; Wanka, Stefanie; Kraft, Claudine; Urban, JÃ¶rg; Campbell, David; Pedrioli, Patrick G.; Gerrits, Bertran; Picotti, Paola; Lam, Henry (2010-12-21). "Phosphoproteomic Analysis Reveals Interconnected System-Wide Responses to Perturbations of Kinases and Phosphatases in Yeast". Science Signaling. 3 (153): rs4. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2001182. PMC 3072779. PMID 21177495.
- Chen, Mark J.; Dixon, Jack E.; Manning, Gerard (2017-04-11). "Genomics and evolution of protein phosphatases". Sci. Signal. 10 (474): eaag1796. doi:10.1126/scisignal.aag1796. ISSN 1945-0877. PMID 28400531.
- Roy, Jagoree; Cyert, Martha S. (2009-12-08). "Cracking the Phosphatase Code: Docking Interactions Determine Substrate Specificity". Science Signaling. 2 (100): re9. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2100re9. PMID 19996458.
- RemÃ©nyi, Attila; Good, Matthew C; Lim, Wendell A (2006-12-01). "Docking interactions in protein kinase and phosphatase networks". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. Catalysis and regulation / Proteins. 16 (6): 676â€“685. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2006.10.008. PMID 17079133.
- G., Voet, Judith; W., Pratt, Charlotte (2013-01-01). Fundamentals of biochemistry : life at the molecular level. Wiley. ISBN 9781118129180. OCLC 892195795.
- Cohen, Philip (2002-05-01). "The origins of protein phosphorylation". Nature Cell Biology. 4 (5): E127â€“130. doi:10.1038/ncb0502-e127. ISSN 1465-7392. PMID 11988757.
- Tonks, Nicholas K. (2006). "Protein tyrosine phosphatases: from genes, to function, to disease". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 7 (11): 833â€“846. doi:10.1038/nrm2039. PMID 17057753.
- "ENZYME entry 220.127.116.11". enzyme.expasy.org. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- Bianchi, V; Pontis, E; Reichard, P (1986). "Interrelations between substrate cycles and de novo synthesis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in 3T6 cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 83 (4): 986â€“990. doi:10.1073/pnas.83.4.986. PMC 322995. PMID 3456577.
- Zimmermann, Herbert; Zebisch, Matthias; StrÃ¤ter, Norbert (2012-09-01). "Cellular function and molecular structure of ecto-nucleotidases". Purinergic Signalling. 8 (3): 437â€“502. doi:10.1007/s11302-012-9309-4. ISSN 1573-9538. PMC 3360096. PMID 22555564.
- Hunsucker, Sally Anne; Mitchell, Beverly S.; Spychala, Jozef (2005-07-01). "The 5'-nucleotidases as regulators of nucleotide and drug metabolism". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 107 (1): 1â€“30. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.01.003. ISSN 0163-7258. PMID 15963349.
- "ENZYME entry 18.104.22.168". enzyme.expasy.org. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "ENZYME entry 22.214.171.124". enzyme.expasy.org. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Histidine phosphatase superfamily (branch 1) Provide feedback
The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches. The larger branch 1 contains a wide variety of catalytic functions, the best known being fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (found in a bifunctional protein with 2-phosphofructokinase) and cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase. The latter is an unusual example of a mutase activity in the superfamily: the vast majority of members appear to be phosphatases. The bacterial regulatory protein phosphatase SixA is also in branch 1 and has a minimal, and possible ancestral-like structure, lacking the large domain insertions that contribute to binding of small molecules in branch 1 members.
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||His_Phos_2|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR013078
The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches. The relationship between the two branches is not evident by (PSI-)BLAST but is clear from more sensitive sequence searches and structural comparisons [PUBMED:18092946].
The larger clade-1 contains a wide variety of catalytic functions, the best known being fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (found in a bifunctional protein with 2-phosphofructokinase) and cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase. The latter is an unusual example of a mutase activity in the superfamily: the vast majority of members appear to be phosphatases. The bacterial regulatory protein phosphatase SixA is also in clade-1 and has a minimal, and possible ancestral-like structure, lacking the large domain insertions that contribute to binding of small molecules in clade-1 members.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches .
The clan contains the following 2 members:His_Phos_1 His_Phos_2
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Author:||Finn RD , Griffiths-Jones SR , Rigden DJ|
|Number in seed:||345|
|Number in full:||51253|
|Average length of the domain:||158.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||19 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||62.29 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||23|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
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- 0 sequences
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 5 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the His_Phos_1 domain has been found. There are 462 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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