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0  structures 97  species 0  interactions 8677  sequences 104  architectures

Family: Chitin_bind_4 (PF00379)

Summary: Insect cuticle protein

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Insect cuticle protein Provide feedback

Many insect cuticular proteins include a 35-36 amino acid motif known as the R&R consensus. The extensive conservation of this region led to the suggestion that it functions to bind chitin. Provocatively, it has no sequence similarity to the well-known cysteine-containing chitin-binding domain found in chitinases and some peritrophic membrane proteins. Chitin binding has been shown experimentally for this region [1]. Thus arthropods have two distinct classes of chitin binding proteins, those with the chitin-binding domain found in lectins, chitinases and peritrophic membranes (cysCBD) and those with the cuticular protein chitin-binding domain (non-cysCBD) [1].

Literature references

  1. Rebers JE, Willis JH; , Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2001;31:1083-1093.: A conserved domain in arthropod cuticular proteins binds chitin. PUBMED:11520687 EPMC:11520687


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR000618

Insect cuticle is composed of proteins and chitin. The cuticular proteins seem to be specific to the type of cuticle (flexible or stiff) that occur at stages of the insect development. The proteins found in the flexible cuticle of larva and pupa of different insects share a conserved C-terminal section [ PUBMED:2462055 ] such a region is also found in the soft endocuticle of adults insects [ PUBMED:1997327 ] as well as in other cuticular proteins including in arachnids [ PUBMED:9014336 ]. In addition, cuticular proteins share hydrophobic regions dominated by tetrapeptide repeats (A-A-P-A/V), which are presumed to be functionally important [ PUBMED:1997327 , PUBMED:9066122 ]. Many insect cuticle proteins also include a 35-36 amino acid motif known as the R and R consensus. An extended form of this motif has been shown [ PUBMED:11520687 ] to bind chitin. It has no sequence similiarity to the cysteine-containing chitin-binding domain of chitinases and some peritrophic membrane proteins, suggesting that arthropods have two distinct classes of chitin-binding proteins, those with the chitin-binding domains found in lectins, chitinases and peritrophic membranes (cysCBD), and those with the type of chitin-binding domains found in cuticular proteins (non-cysCBD) [ PUBMED:11520687 ].

The cuticle protein signature has been found in locust cuticle proteins 7 (LM-7), 8 (LM-8), 19 (LM-19) and endocuticle structural glycoprotein ABD-4; Hyalophora cecropia (Cecropia moth) cuticle proteins 12 and 66; Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) larval cuticles proteins I, II, III and IV (LCP1 to LCP4); drosophila pupal cuticle proteins PCP, EDG-78E and EDG-84E; Manduca sexta (Tobacco hawkmoth) cuticle protein LCP-14; Tenebrio molitor (Yellow mealworm) cuticle proteins ACP-20, A1A, A2B and A3A; and Araneus diadematus (Spider) cuticle proteins ACP 11.9, ACP 12.4, ACP 12.6, ACP 15.5 and ACP 15.7.

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(86)
Full
(8677)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(19872)
RP15
(4115)
RP35
(6740)
RP55
(8814)
RP75
(10947)
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PP/heatmap 1            

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(86)
Full
(8677)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(19872)
RP15
(4115)
RP35
(6740)
RP55
(8814)
RP75
(10947)
Alignment:
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(86)
Full
(8677)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(19872)
RP15
(4115)
RP35
(6740)
RP55
(8814)
RP75
(10947)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: insect_cuticle;
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Finn RD
Number in seed: 86
Number in full: 8677
Average length of the domain: 52.80 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 31 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 22.62 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 21.5 21.5
Trusted cut-off 21.5 21.5
Noise cut-off 21.4 21.4
Model length: 53
Family (HMM) version: 25
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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AlphaFold Structure Predictions

The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.

Protein Predicted structure External Information
A0A0B4KI23 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8H1 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8H4 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8H5 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8H6 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8H7 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8Y3 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8Y8 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8Z2 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8Z3 View 3D Structure Click here
A1Z8Z7 View 3D Structure Click here
A8DRW0 View 3D Structure Click here
A8JNL8 View 3D Structure Click here
A8JNN4 View 3D Structure Click here
C0HL62 View 3D Structure Click here
C0HL63 View 3D Structure Click here
C0HL64 View 3D Structure Click here
C0HL65 View 3D Structure Click here
M9PFX4 View 3D Structure Click here
O97059 View 3D Structure Click here
O97060 View 3D Structure Click here
O97061 View 3D Structure Click here
O97062 View 3D Structure Click here
O97063 View 3D Structure Click here
O97064 View 3D Structure Click here
P02839 View 3D Structure Click here
P07187 View 3D Structure Click here
P07188 View 3D Structure Click here
P07189 View 3D Structure Click here
P14484 View 3D Structure Click here
P27779 View 3D Structure Click here
P27780 View 3D Structure Click here
P52302 View 3D Structure Click here
P82384 View 3D Structure Click here
P91939 View 3D Structure Click here
P91940 View 3D Structure Click here
P91941 View 3D Structure Click here
P91942 View 3D Structure Click here
P92181 View 3D Structure Click here
P92194 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4V480 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4V6L8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q5U126 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7JR69 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7JZ94 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7JZJ3 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7JZV0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7JZW0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7K0A2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7K2P1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7K5J8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8I0P8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8IPD5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8IPD8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8MLN7 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8MZ06 View 3D Structure Click here
Q95RB2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9I7C6 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9I7Q5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9I7Q6 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9V3L8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9V3P9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9V7U0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VA32 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VB81 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VB82 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VDJ8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VKE2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VLB1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VP00 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VP53 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VP55 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VP56 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VQH5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VRU7 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VRU9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VS12 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VS14 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VSH5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VSH7 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VSN3 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VSY0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VTC6 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VTC7 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VTC8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VV44 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VV45 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VV46 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VVC3 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VVC3 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VW02 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VW03 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VYC1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VYC2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VYM0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VYM5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VZF9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VZG0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VZG1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VZG2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9W077 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9W078 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9W079 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9W471 View 3D Structure Click here
R9PY51 View 3D Structure Click here

Family Structural Model

The structural model below was generated by the Baker group with the trRosetta software using the Pfam UniProt multiple sequence alignment.

The InterPro website shows the contact map for the Pfam SEED alignment. Hovering or clicking on a contact position will highlight its connection to other residues in the alignment, as well as on the 3D structure.

Improved protein structure prediction using predicted inter-residue orientations. Jianyi Yang, Ivan Anishchenko, Hahnbeom Park, Zhenling Peng, Sergey Ovchinnikov, David Baker Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jan 2020, 117 (3) 1496-1503; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914677117;