Summary: LIM domain
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LIM domain Edit Wikipedia article
Structure of the 4th LIM domain of Pinch protein. Zinc atoms are shown in grey
|SCOPe||1ctl / SUPFAM|
LIM domains are protein structural domains, composed of two contiguous zinc finger domains, separated by a two-amino acid residue hydrophobic linker. They are named after their initial discovery in the proteins Lin11, Isl-1 & Mec-3. LIM-domain containing proteins have been shown to play roles in cytoskeletal organisation, organ development and oncogenesis. LIM-domains mediate proteinâ€“protein interactions that are critical to cellular processes.
LIM domains have highly divergent sequences, apart from certain key residues. The sequence divergence allow a great many different binding sites to be grafted onto the same basic domain. The conserved residues are those involved in zinc binding or the hydrophobic core of the protein. The sequence signature of LIM domains is as follows:
LIM domains frequently occur in multiples, as seen in proteins such as TES, LMO4, and can also be attached to other domains in order to confer a binding or targeting function upon them, such as LIM-kinase.
The LIM superclass of genes have been classified into 14 classes: ABLIM, CRP, ENIGMA, EPLIN, LASP, LHX, LMO, LIMK, LMO7, MICAL, PXN, PINCH, TES, and ZYX. Six of these classes (i.e., ABLIM, MICAL, ENIGMA, ZYX, LHX, LM07) originated in the stem lineage of animals, and this expansion is thought to have made a major contribution to the origin of animal multicellularity.
LIM domains are also found in various bacterial lineages where they are typically fused to a metallopeptidase domain. Some versions show fusions to an inactive P-loop NTPase at their N-terminus and a single transmembrane helix. These domain fusions suggest that the prokaryotic LIM domains are likely to regulate protein processing at the cell membrane. The domain architectural syntax is remarkably parallel to those of the prokaryotic versions of the B-box zinc finger and the AN1 zinc finger domains.
- Kadrmas JL, Beckerle MC (2004). "The LIM domain: from the cytoskeleton to the nucleus". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5 (11): 920â€“31. doi:10.1038/nrm1499. PMID 15520811.
- Bach I (2000). "The LIM domain: regulation by association". Mech. Dev. 91 (1â€“2): 5â€“17. doi:10.1016/S0925-4773(99)00314-7. PMID 10704826.
- Koch BJ, Ryan JF, Baxevanis AD (March 2012). "The Diversification of the LIM Superclass at the Base of the Metazoa Increased Subcellular Complexity and Promoted Multicellular Specialization". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e33261. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...733261K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033261. PMC 3305314. PMID 22438907.
- Burroughs AM, Iyer LM, Aravind L (July 2011). "Functional diversification of the RING finger and other binuclear treble clef domains in prokaryotes and the early evolution of the ubiquitin system". Mol. Biosyst. 7 (1): 2261â€“77. doi:10.1039/C1MB05061C. PMC 5938088. PMID 21547297.
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LIM domain Provide feedback
This family represents two copies of the LIM structural domain.
Perez-Alvarado GC, Miles C, Michelsen JW, Louis HA, Winge DR, Beckerle MC, Summers MF; , Nat Struct Biol 1994;1:388-398.: Structure of the carboxy-terminal Lim domain from the cysteine rich protein Crp. PUBMED:7664053 EPMC:7664053
Internal database links
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001781
This entry represents LIM-type zinc finger (Znf) domains. LIM domains coordinate one or more zinc atoms, and are named after the three proteins (LIN-11, Isl1 and MEC-3) in which they were first found. They consist of two zinc-binding motifs that resemble GATA-like Znf's, however the residues holding the zinc atom(s) are variable, involving Cys, His, Asp or Glu residues. LIM domains are involved in proteins with differing functions, including gene expression, and cytoskeleton organisation and development [ PUBMED:1970421 , PUBMED:1467648 ]. Protein containing LIM Znf domains include:
- Caenorhabditis elegans mec-3; a protein required for the differentiation of the set of six touch receptor neurons in this nematode.
- C. elegans. lin-11; a protein required for the asymmetric division of vulval blast cells.
- Vertebrate insulin gene enhancer binding protein isl-1. Isl-1 binds to one of the two cis-acting protein-binding domains of the insulin gene.
- Vertebrate homeobox proteins lim-1, lim-2 (lim-5) and lim3.
- Vertebrate lmx-1, which acts as a transcriptional activator by binding to the FLAT element; a beta-cell-specific transcriptional enhancer found in the insulin gene.
- Mammalian LH-2, a transcriptional regulatory protein involved in the control of cell differentiation in developing lymphoid and neural cell types.
- Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) protein apterous, required for the normal development of the wing and halter imaginal discs.
- Vertebrate protein kinases LIMK-1 and LIMK-2.
- Mammalian rhombotins. Rhombotin 1 (RBTN1 or TTG-1) and rhombotin-2 (RBTN2 or TTG-2) are proteins of about 160 amino acids whose genes are disrupted by chromosomal translocations in T-cell leukemia.
- Mammalian and avian cysteine-rich protein (CRP), a 192 amino-acid protein of unknown function. Seems to interact with zyxin.
- Mammalian cysteine-rich intestinal protein (CRIP), a small protein which seems to have a role in zinc absorption and may function as an intracellular zinc transport protein.
- Vertebrate paxillin, a cytoskeletal focal adhesion protein.
- Mus musculus (Mouse) testin which should not be confused with rat testin which is a thiol protease homologue (see INTERPRO ).
- Helianthus annuus (Common sunflower) pollen specific protein SF3.
- Chicken zyxin. Zyxin is a low-abundance adhesion plaque protein which has been shown to interact with CRP.
- Yeast protein LRG1 which is involved in sporulation [ PUBMED:8065929 ].
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) rho-type GTPase activating protein RGA1/DBM1.
- C. elegans homeobox protein ceh-14.
- C. elegans homeobox protein unc-97.
- S. cerevisiae hypothetical protein YKR090w.
- C. elegans hypothetical proteins C28H8.6.
These proteins generally contain two tandem copies of the LIM domain in their N-terminal section. Zyxin and paxillin are exceptions in that they contain respectively three and four LIM domains at their C-terminal extremity. In apterous, isl-1, LH-2, lin-11, lim-1 to lim-3, lmx-1 and ceh-14 and mec-3 there is a homeobox domain some 50 to 95 amino acids after the LIM domains.
LIM domains contain seven conserved cysteine residues and a histidine. The arrangement followed by these conserved residues is:
LIM domains bind two zinc ions [ PUBMED:8506279 ]. LIM does not bind DNA, rather it seems to act as an interface for protein-protein interaction.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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A clan of zinc-binding ribbon domains.
The clan contains the following 88 members:A2L_zn_ribbon Auto_anti-p27 Baculo_LEF5_C CpXC DNA_RNApol_7kD DUF1451 DUF1936 DUF2072 DUF2116 DUF2180 DUF2387 DUF2614 DUF35_N DUF3945 DUF4379 DZR DZR_2 Elf1 GATA HVO_2753_ZBP Lar_restr_allev LIM MscL Mu-like_Com NinF NOB1_Zn_bind Nudix_N_2 Ogr_Delta OrfB_Zn_ribbon PriA_CRR Prim_Zn_Ribbon RecO_C Ribosomal_L32p Ribosomal_L33 Ribosomal_L37ae Ribosomal_L37e Ribosomal_L40e Ribosomal_L44 Ribosomal_S27 Ribosomal_S27e RNA_POL_M_15KD Rubredoxin_2 Spt4 Stc1 TF_Zn_Ribbon TFIIS_C Tnp_zf-ribbon_2 Topo_Zn_Ribbon Toprim_Crpt Trm112p UPF0547 YjdM_Zn_Ribbon zf-C4 zf-C4_ClpX zf-C4_Topoisom zf-CHC2 zf-CSL zf-dskA_traR zf-FPG_IleRS zf-GRF zf-ISL3 zf-NADH-PPase zf-PARP zf-RanBP zf-ribbon_3 zf-RING_7 zf-RRN7 zf-TFIIB zf-trcl zf-ZPR1 zf_PR_Knuckle zf_Rg zinc-ribbon_6 zinc-ribbons_6 zinc_ribbon_10 zinc_ribbon_11 zinc_ribbon_12 zinc_ribbon_13 zinc_ribbon_15 zinc_ribbon_2 zinc_ribbon_4 zinc_ribbon_5 zinc_ribbon_9 Zn-ribbon_8 Zn_ribbon_recom Zn_ribbon_SprT Zn_Tnp_IS1 Zn_Tnp_IS1595
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Author:||Finn RD , Griffiths-Jones SR|
|Number in seed:||34|
|Number in full:||82108|
|Average length of the domain:||57.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||26 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||21.76 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||24|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the LIM domain has been found. There are 121 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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