Summary: Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III
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Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III Edit Wikipedia article
|, COIII, MTCO3, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome c oxidase III|
|Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III|
Structure of the 13-subunit oxidized cytochrome c oxidase.
|SCOPe||1occ / SUPFAM|
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (COX3) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MT-CO3 gene. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III is one of main transmembrane subunits of cytochrome c oxidase. Variants of MT-CO3 have been associated with isolated myopathy, severe encephalomyopathy, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, and recurrent myoglobinuria .
The MT-CO3 gene produces a 30 kDa protein composed of 261 amino acids. COX3, the protein encoded by this gene, is a member of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 family. This protein is located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. COX3 is a multi-pass transmembrane protein. It contains 7 transmembrane domains at positions 15-35, 42-59, 81-101, 127-147, 159-179, 197-217, and 239-259.
Cytochrome c oxidase (EC 126.96.36.199) is the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain of mitochondria and many aerobic bacteria. It catalyzes the transfer of electrons from reduced cytochrome c to molecular oxygen:
- 4 cytochrome c+2 + 4 H+ + O2 4 cytochrome c+3 + 2 H2O
Cytochrome c oxidase is an oligomeric enzymatic complex that is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane of eukaryotes and in the plasma membrane of aerobic prokaryotes. The core structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase contains three common subunits, I, II and III. In prokaryotes, subunits I and III can be fused and a fourth subunit is sometimes found, whereas in eukaryotes there are a variable number of additional small subunits.
As the bacterial respiratory systems are branched, they have a number of distinct terminal oxidases, rather than the single cytochrome c oxidase present in the eukaryotic mitochondrial systems. Although the cytochrome o oxidases do not catalyze the cytochrome c but the quinol (ubiquinol) oxidation they belong to the same haem-copper oxidase superfamily as cytochrome c oxidases. Members of this family share sequence similarities in all three core subunits: subunit I is the most conserved subunit, whereas subunit II is the least conserved.
Mutations in mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes have been observed to be associated with isolated myopathy, severe encephalomyopathy, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, and recurrent myoglobinuria .
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)
LHON is a maternally inherited disease resulting in acute or subacute loss of central vision, due to optic nerve dysfunction. Cardiac conduction defects and neurological defects have also been described in some patients. LHON results from primary mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting the respiratory chain complexes. Mutations at positions 9438 and 9804, which result in glycine-78 to serine and alanine-200 to threonine amino acid changes, have been associated with this disease.
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency (MT-C4D)
Complex IV deficiency (COX deficiency) is a disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory chain with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, ranging from isolated myopathy to severe multisystem disease affecting several tissues and organs. Features include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction, hypotonia, muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, developmental delay, delayed motor development, mental retardation, lactic acidemia, encephalopathy, ataxia, and cardiac arrhythmia. Some affected individuals manifest a fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulting in neonatal death and a subset of patients manifest Leigh syndrome. The mutations G7970T and G9952A have been associated with this disease.
Recurrent myoglobinuria mitochondrial (RM-MT)
Recurrent myoglobinuria is characterized by recurrent attacks of rhabdomyolysis (necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle) associated with muscle pain and weakness, and followed by excretion of myoglobin in the urine. It has been associated with mitochondrial complex IV deficiency.
- Cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase, subunit III InterPro: IPR014206
- Cytochrome aa3 quinol oxidase, subunit III InterPro: IPR014246
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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III Provide feedback
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Tsukihara T, Aoyama H, Yamashita E, Tomizaki T, Yamaguchi H, Shinzawa-Itoh K, Nakashima R, Yaono R, Yoshikawa S; , Science 1996;272:1136-1144.: The whole structure of the 13-subunit oxidized cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A. PUBMED:8638158 EPMC:8638158
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000298
Cytochrome c oxidase (EC) is the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain of mitochondria and many aerobic bacteria. It catalyses the transfer of electrons from reduced cytochrome c to molecular oxygen:
Cytochrome c oxidase is an oligomeric enzymatic complex that is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane of eukaryotes and in the plasma membrane of aerobic prokaryotes. The core structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase contains three common subunits, I, II and III. In prokaryotes, subunits I and III can be fused and a fourth subunit is sometimes found, whereas in eukaryotes there are a variable number of additional small polypeptidic subunits [PUBMED:8383670]. The functional role of subunit III is not yet understood.
As the bacterial respiratory systems are branched, they have a number of distinct terminal oxidases, rather than the single cytochrome c oxidase present in the eukaryotic mitochondrial systems. Even though the cytochrome o complex oxidises quinol (ubiquinol) and does not catalyse the oxidation of reduced cytochrome c, they belong to the same haem-copper oxidase superfamily as cytochrome c oxidases. Members of this family share sequence similarities in all three core subunits: subunit I is the most conserved subunit, whereas subunit II is the least conserved [PUBMED:1316894, PUBMED:2162835, PUBMED:8083153].
This entry represents a structural domain found in cytochrome c and ubiquinol oxidase subunit III. The overall structure of these enzymes is similar [PUBMED:11017202].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||membrane (GO:0016020)|
|Molecular function||heme-copper terminal oxidase activity (GO:0015002)|
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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|Seed source:||Pfam-B_78 (release 1.0)|
|Number in seed:||8|
|Number in full:||9050|
|Average length of the domain:||191.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||27 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||84.89 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||19|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
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We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 11 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the COX3 domain has been found. There are 124 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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