Summary: Interferon regulatory factor transcription factor
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Interferon regulatory factors Edit Wikipedia article
|Interferon regulatory factor transcription factor|
|SCOP2||1if1 / SCOPe / SUPFAM|
Interferon regulatory factors (IRF) are proteins which regulate transcription of interferons (see regulation of gene expression). Interferon regulatory factors contain a conserved N-terminal region of about 120 amino acids, which folds into a structure that binds specifically to the IRF-element (IRF-E) motifs, which is located upstream of the interferon genes. Some viruses have evolved defense mechanisms that regulate and interfere with IRF functions to escape the host immune system. For instance, the remaining parts of the interferon regulatory factor sequence vary depending on the precise function of the protein. The Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, KSHV, is a cancer virus that encodes four different IRF-like genes; including vIRF1, which is a transforming oncoprotein that inhibits type 1 interferon activity. In addition, the expression of IRF genes is under epigenetic regulation by promoter DNA methylation.
Role in IFN Signaling
IRFs primarily regulate type I IFNs in the host after pathogen invasion and are considered the crucial mediators of an antiviral response. Following a viral infection, pathogens are detected by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), including various types of Toll-like Receptors (TLR) and cytosolic PRRs, in the host cell. The downstream signaling pathways from PRR activation phosphorylate ubiquitously expressed IRFs (IRF1, IRF3, and IRF7) through IRF kinases, such as TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Phosphorylated IRFs are translocated to the nucleus where they bind to IRF-E motifs and activate the transcription of Type I IFNs. In addition to IFNs, IRF1 and IRF5 has been found to induce transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Some IFNs like IRF2 and IRF4 regulate the activation of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition. IRF2 contains a repressor region that downregulates expression of type I IFNs. IRF4 competes with IRF5, and inhibits its sustained activity.
Role in Immune Cell Development
In addition to the signal transduction functions of IRFs in innate immune responses, multiple IRFs (IRF1, IRF2, IRF4, and IRF8) play essential roles in the development of immune cells, including dendritic, myeloid, natural killer (NK), B, and T cells.
Dendritic cells (DC) are a group of heterogeneous cells that can be divided into different subsets with distinct functions and developmental programs. IRF4 and IRF8 specify and direct the differentiation of different subsets of DCs by stimulating subset-specific gene expression. For example, IRF4 is required for the generation of CD4 + DCs, whereas IRF8 is essential for CD8Î± + DCs. In addition to IRF4 and IRF8, IRF1 and IRF2 are also involved in DC subset development.
IRF8 has also been implicated in the promotion of macrophage development from common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and the inhibition of granulocytic differentiation during the divergence of granulocytes and monocytes.
IRF8 and IRF4 are also involved in the regulation of B and T-cell development at multiple stages. IRF8 and IRF4 function redundantly to drive common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) to B-cell lineage. IRF8 and IRF4 are also required in the regulation of germinal center (GC) B cell differentiation.
Role in Diseases
IRFs are critical regulators of immune responses and immune cell development, and abnormalities in IRF expression and function have been linked to numerous diseases. Due to their critical role in IFN type I activation, IRFs are implicated in autoimmune diseases that are linked to activation of IFN type I system, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Accumulating evidence also indicates that IRFs play a major role in the regulation of cellular responses linked to oncogenesis. In addition to autoimmune diseases and cancers, IRFs are also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases, such as hepatic steatosis, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, and stroke.
- Paun A, Pitha PM (2007). "The IRF family, revisited". Biochimie. 89 (6â€“7): 744â€“53. doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2007.01.014. PMCÂ 2139905. PMIDÂ 17399883.
- Weisz A, Marx P, Sharf R, Appella E, Driggers PH, Ozato K, Levi BZ (December 1992). "Human interferon consensus sequence binding protein is a negative regulator of enhancer elements common to interferon-inducible genes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (35): 25589â€“96. PMIDÂ 1460054.
- Zhao GN, Jiang DS, Li H (February 2015). "Interferon regulatory factors: at the crossroads of immunity, metabolism, and disease". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1852 (2): 365â€“78. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.04.030. PMIDÂ 24807060.
- Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS, Lee F, Culpepper J, Knowles DM, Moore PS (December 1994). "Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma". Science. 266 (5192): 1865â€“9. Bibcode:1994Sci...266.1865C. doi:10.1126/science.7997879. PMIDÂ 7997879.
- Offermann MK (2007). "Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus-encoded interferon regulator factors". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 312: 185â€“209. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-34344-8_7. ISBNÂ 978-3-540-34343-1. PMIDÂ 17089798.
- Moore PS, Boshoff C, Weiss RA, Chang Y (December 1996). "Molecular mimicry of human cytokine and cytokine response pathway genes by KSHV". Science. 274 (5293): 1739â€“44. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1739M. doi:10.1126/science.274.5293.1739. PMIDÂ 8939871. S2CIDÂ 29713179.
- Gao SJ, Boshoff C, Jayachandra S, Weiss RA, Chang Y, Moore PS (October 1997). "KSHV ORF K9 (vIRF) is an oncogene which inhibits the interferon signaling pathway". Oncogene. 15 (16): 1979â€“85. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201571. PMIDÂ 9365244.
- Rotondo JC, Borghi A, Selvatici R, Magri E, Bianchini E, Montinari E, etÂ al. (August 2016). "Hypermethylation-Induced Inactivation of the IRF6 Gene as a Possible Early Event in Progression of Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Associated With Lichen Sclerosus". JAMA Dermatology. 152 (8): 928â€“33. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2016.1336. PMIDÂ 27223861.
- Shah, Masaud; Choi, Sangdun (2016), Choi, Sangdun (ed.), "Interferon Regulatory Factor", Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules, New York, NY: Springer, pp.Â 1â€“10, doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-6438-9_101496-1, ISBNÂ 978-1-4614-6438-9, retrieved 2021-03-08
- Santana-de Anda K, GÃ³mez-MartÃn D, DÃaz-Zamudio M, Alcocer-Varela J (December 2011). "Interferon regulatory factors: beyond the antiviral response and their link to the development of autoimmune pathology". Autoimmunity Reviews. 11 (2): 98â€“103. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2011.08.006. PMIDÂ 21872684.
- Yanai H, Negishi H, Taniguchi T (November 2012). "The IRF family of transcription factors: Inception, impact and implications in oncogenesis". Oncoimmunology. 1 (8): 1376â€“1386. doi:10.4161/onci.22475. PMCÂ 3518510. PMIDÂ 23243601.
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Interferon regulatory factor transcription factor Provide feedback
This family of transcription factors are important in the regulation of interferons in response to infection by virus and in the regulation of interferon-inducible genes. Three of the five conserved tryptophan residues bind to DNA.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001346
Viral infections induce the expression of type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) genes. The induction is due to the transcriptional activation of the IFN genes. Interferon regulatory factor I (IRF-1) is one of the transcription factors responsible for that activation. IRF-1 binds to an upstream regulatory cis element, known as the interferon consensus sequence (ICS), which is found in the promoters of type I IFN and IFN-inducible MHC class I genes. Interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF-2) is a protein that also interacts with the ICS, but that does not function as an activator; rather, it suppresses the function of IRF-1 under certain circumstances [ PUBMED:2691585 ].
These proteins share a highly conserved N-terminal domain of about 100 amino acid residues which is involved in DNA-binding and which contain five conserved tryptophans. This domain is known as a 'tryptophan pentad repeat' or a 'tryptophan cluster' and is also present in:
- Interferon consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP) [ PUBMED:2111015 ], a transcription factor expressed predominantly in lymphoid tissues and induced by IFN-gamma that also binds to the ICS.
- Transcriptional regulator ISGF3 gamma subunit [ PUBMED:1630447 ]. ISGF3 is responsible for the initial stimulation of interferon-alpha-responsive genes. It recognises and binds to the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) within the regulatory sequences of target genes.
- Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3).
- Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) which binds to the interferon- stimulated response element (ISRE) of the MHC class I promoter.
- Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5).
- Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF-6).
- Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7).
- Gamma Herpesviruses vIRF-1, -2 and -3, proteins with homology to the cellular transcription factors of the IRF family [ PUBMED:10933732 ]. Neither vIRF-1 nor vIRF-2 bind to DNA with the same specificity as cellular IRFs, indicating that if vIRFs are DNA-binding proteins, their binding has a pattern distinct from that of the cellular IRFs. Whether vIRF-3 can bind DNA with the same specificity as cellular IRFs is not known.
The IRF tryptophan pentad repeat DNA-binding domain has an alpha/beta architecture comprising a cluster of three alpha-helices (alpha1-alpha3) flanked on one side by a mixed four-stranded beta-sheet (beta1-beta4). It forms a helix-turn-helix motif that binds to ISRE consensus sequences found in target promoters. Three of the tryptophan residues contact DNA by recognising a GAAA sequence [ PUBMED:9422515 ].
This entry represents the IRF tryptophan pentad repeat DNA-binding domain.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||transcription cis-regulatory region binding (GO:0000976)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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This family contains a diverse range of mostly DNA-binding domains that contain a helix-turn-helix motif.
The clan contains the following 381 members:AbiEi_3_N AbiEi_4 ANAPC2 AphA_like AraR_C Arg_repressor ARID ArsR B-block_TFIIIC B5 Bac_DnaA_C Baculo_PEP_N BetR BHD_3 BLACT_WH Bot1p BrkDBD BrxA BsuBI_PstI_RE_N C_LFY_FLO CaiF_GrlA CarD_CdnL_TRCF CDC27 Cdc6_C Cdh1_DBD_1 CDT1 CDT1_C CENP-B_N Costars CPSase_L_D3 Cro Crp CSN4_RPN5_eIF3a CSN8_PSD8_EIF3K CtsR Cullin_Nedd8 CUT CUTL CvfB_WH DBD_HTH DDRGK DEP Dimerisation Dimerisation2 DNA_binding_1 DNA_meth_N DpnI_C DprA_WH DsrC DsrD DUF1016_N DUF1133 DUF1153 DUF1323 DUF134 DUF1376 DUF1441 DUF1492 DUF1495 DUF1670 DUF1804 DUF1836 DUF1870 DUF2089 DUF2250 DUF2316 DUF2513 DUF2551 DUF2582 DUF3116 DUF3161 DUF3253 DUF3489 DUF3853 DUF3860 DUF3895 DUF3908 DUF433 DUF434 DUF4364 DUF4373 DUF4423 DUF4447 DUF4777 DUF480 DUF4817 DUF5635 DUF573 DUF5805 DUF6088 DUF6262 DUF6362 DUF6432 DUF6462 DUF6471 DUF722 DUF739 DUF742 DUF937 DUF977 E2F_TDP EAP30 eIF-5_eIF-2B ELL ESCRT-II Ets EutK_C Exc F-112 FaeA Fe_dep_repr_C Fe_dep_repress FeoC FokI_D1 FokI_dom_2 Forkhead FtsK_gamma FUR GcrA GerE GntR GP3_package HARE-HTH HemN_C HNF-1_N Homeobox_KN Homeodomain Homez HPD HrcA_DNA-bdg HSF_DNA-bind HTH_1 HTH_10 HTH_11 HTH_12 HTH_13 HTH_15 HTH_16 HTH_17 HTH_18 HTH_19 HTH_20 HTH_21 HTH_22 HTH_23 HTH_24 HTH_25 HTH_26 HTH_27 HTH_28 HTH_29 HTH_3 HTH_30 HTH_31 HTH_32 HTH_33 HTH_34 HTH_35 HTH_36 HTH_37 HTH_38 HTH_39 HTH_40 HTH_41 HTH_42 HTH_43 HTH_45 HTH_46 HTH_47 HTH_48 HTH_49 HTH_5 HTH_50 HTH_51 HTH_52 HTH_53 HTH_54 HTH_55 HTH_56 HTH_57 HTH_58 HTH_59 HTH_6 HTH_60 HTH_61 HTH_7 HTH_8 HTH_9 HTH_ABP1_N HTH_AraC HTH_AsnC-type HTH_CodY HTH_Crp_2 HTH_DeoR HTH_IclR HTH_Mga HTH_micro HTH_OrfB_IS605 HTH_PafC HTH_ParB HTH_psq HTH_SUN2 HTH_Tnp_1 HTH_Tnp_1_2 HTH_Tnp_2 HTH_Tnp_4 HTH_Tnp_IS1 HTH_Tnp_IS630 HTH_Tnp_ISL3 HTH_Tnp_Mu_1 HTH_Tnp_Mu_2 HTH_Tnp_Tc3_1 HTH_Tnp_Tc3_2 HTH_Tnp_Tc5 HTH_WhiA HxlR IBD IF2_N IRF KicB KilA-N Kin17_mid KORA KorB La LacI LexA_DNA_bind Linker_histone LZ_Tnp_IS481 MADF_DNA_bdg MAGE MARF1_LOTUS MarR MarR_2 MC6 MC7 MC8 MerR MerR-DNA-bind MerR_1 MerR_2 Mga Mnd1 MogR_DNAbind Mor MotA_activ MqsA_antitoxin MRP-L20 Mrr_N MukE Myb_DNA-bind_2 Myb_DNA-bind_3 Myb_DNA-bind_4 Myb_DNA-bind_5 Myb_DNA-bind_6 Myb_DNA-bind_7 Myb_DNA-binding Neugrin NFRKB_winged NOD2_WH NUMOD1 ORC_WH_C OST-HTH P22_Cro PaaX PadR PapB PAX PCI Penicillinase_R Phage_AlpA Phage_antitermQ Phage_CI_repr Phage_CII Phage_NinH Phage_Nu1 Phage_rep_O Phage_rep_org_N Phage_terminase PheRS_DBD1 PheRS_DBD2 PheRS_DBD3 PhetRS_B1 Pou Pox_D5 PqqD PRC2_HTH_1 PUFD PuR_N Put_DNA-bind_N pXO2-72 Raf1_HTH Rap1-DNA-bind Rep_3 RepA_C RepA_N RepB RepC RepL Replic_Relax RFX_DNA_binding Ribosomal_S18 Ribosomal_S19e Ribosomal_S25 Rio2_N RNA_pol_Rpc34 RNA_pol_Rpc82 RNase_H2-Ydr279 ROQ_II ROXA-like_wH RP-C RPA RPA_C RPN6_C_helix RQC Rrf2 RTP RuvB_C S10_plectin SAC3_GANP SANT_DAMP1_like SatD SelB-wing_1 SelB-wing_2 SelB-wing_3 SgrR_N Sigma54_CBD Sigma54_DBD Sigma70_ECF Sigma70_ner Sigma70_r2 Sigma70_r3 Sigma70_r4 Sigma70_r4_2 SinI SKA1 Ski_Sno SLIDE Slx4 SMC_Nse1 SMC_ScpB SoPB_HTH SpoIIID SRP19 SRP_SPB STN1_2 Stn1_C Stork_head Sulfolobus_pRN Suv3_N Swi6_N SWIRM Tau95 TBPIP TEA Terminase_5 TetR_N TFA2_Winged_2 TFIIE_alpha TFIIE_beta TFIIF_alpha TFIIF_beta Tn7_Tnp_TnsA_C Tn916-Xis TraI_2_C Trans_reg_C TrfA TrmB tRNA_bind_2 tRNA_bind_3 Trp_repressor UPF0122 UPF0175 Vir_act_alpha_C XPA_C Xre-like-HTH YdaS_antitoxin YidB YjcQ YokU z-alpha
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Number in seed:||73|
|Number in full:||3941|
|Average length of the domain:||101.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||47 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||25.53 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||20|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the IRF domain has been found. There are 43 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.