Summary: Diacylglycerol kinase catalytic domain
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Diacylglycerol kinase Edit Wikipedia article
DgkB, soluble DAGK from Staphylococcus aureus. Î±-helices in red, Î²-strands in yellow, coils in green.
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase|
|Diacylglycerol kinase catalytic domain|
|Diacylglycerol kinase accessory domain|
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK or DAGK) is a family of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA), utilizing ATP as a source of the phosphate. In non-stimulated cells, DGK activity is low, allowing DAG to be used for glycerophospholipid biosynthesis, but on receptor activation of the phosphoinositide pathway, DGK activity increases, driving the conversion of DAG to PA. As both lipids are thought to function as bioactive lipid signaling molecules with distinct cellular targets, DGK therefore occupies an important position, effectively serving as a switch by terminating the signalling of one lipid while simultaneously activating signalling by another.
In bacteria, DGK is very small (13 to 15 kD) membrane protein which seems to contain three transmembrane domains. The best conserved region is a stretch of 12 residues which are located in a cytoplasmic loop between the second and third transmembrane domains. Some Gram-positive bacteria also encode a soluble diacylglycerol kinase capable of reintroducing DAG into the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway. DAG accumulates in Gram-positive bacteria as a result of the transfer of glycerol-1-phosphate moieties from phosphatidylglycerol to lipotechoic acid.
Mammalian DGK Isoforms
Currently, nine members of the DGK family have been cloned and identified. Although all family members have conserved catalytic domains and two cysteine rich domains, they are further classified into five groups according to the presence of additional functional domains and substrate specificity. These are as follows:
- Type 1 - DGK-Î±, DGK-Î², DGK-Î³ - contain EF-hand motifs and a recoverin homology domain
- Type 2 - DGK-Î´, DGK-Î· - contain a pleckstrin homology domain
- Type 3 - DGK-Îµ - has specificity for arachidonate-containing DAG
- Type 4 - DGK-Î¶, DGK-Î¹ - contain a MARCKS homology domain, ankyrin repeats, a C-terminal nuclear localisation signal, and a PDZ-binding motif.
- Type 5 - DGK-Î¸ - contains a third cysteine-rich domain, a pleckstrin homology domain and a proline rich region
Mutations in the genes for deoxyguanosine kinase along with myophosphorylase have been associated with muscle glycogenosis and mitochondrial hepatopathy. The duplication in exon 6 of dGK that results in a truncated protein and the G456A PYGM mutation have been associated with phosphorylase deficiency in muscle, cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in liver, severe congenital hypotonia, hepatomegaly, and liver failure. This expands on the current understanding of McArdle disease and suggests that this combination of mutations could result in a complex disease with severe phenotypes.
- MÃ©rida I, Avila-Flores A, Merino E (January 2008). "Diacylglycerol kinases: at the hub of cell signalling". The Biochemical Journal. 409 (1): 1â€“18. doi:10.1042/BJ20071040. PMID 18062770.
- Smith RL, O'Toole JF, Maguire ME, Sanders CR (September 1994). "Membrane topology of Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase". Journal of Bacteriology. 176 (17): 5459â€“65. doi:10.1128/jb.176.17.5459-5465.1994. PMC 196734. PMID 8071224.
- Miller DJ, Jerga A, Rock CO, White SW (July 2008). "Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus DgkB structure reveals a common catalytic mechanism for the soluble diacylglycerol kinases". Structure. 16 (7): 1036â€“46. doi:10.1016/j.str.2008.03.019. PMC 2847398. PMID 18611377.
- van Blitterswijk WJ, Houssa B (October 2000). "Properties and functions of diacylglycerol kinases". Cellular Signalling. 12 (9â€“10): 595â€“605. doi:10.1016/s0898-6568(00)00113-3. PMID 11080611.
- Mancuso M, Filosto M, Tsujino S, Lamperti C, Shanske S, Coquet M, Desnuelle C, DiMauro S (October 2003). "Muscle glycogenosis and mitochondrial hepatopathy in an infant with mutations in both the myophosphorylase and deoxyguanosine kinase genes". Archives of Neurology. 60 (10): 1445â€“7. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.10.1445. PMID 14568816.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Diacylglycerol kinase catalytic domain Provide feedback
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a second messenger that acts as a protein kinase C activator. The catalytic domain is assumed from the finding of bacterial homologues. YegS is the Escherichia coli protein in this family whose crystal structure reveals an active site in the inter-domain cleft formed by four conserved sequence motifs, revealing a novel metal-binding site. The residues of this site are conserved across the family .
Sakane F, Imai S, Kai M, Wada I, Kanoh H; , J Biol Chem 1996;271:8394-8401.: Molecular cloning of a novel diacylglycerol kinase isozyme with a pleckstrin homology domain and a C-terminal tail similar to those of the EPH family of protein-tyrosine kinases. PUBMED:8626538 EPMC:8626538
Schaap D, de Widt J, van der Wal J, Vandekerckhove J, van Damme J, Gussow D, Ploegh HL, van Blitterswijk WJ, van der Bend RL; , FEBS Lett 1990;275:151-158.: Purification, cDNA-cloning and expression of human diacylglycerol kinase. PUBMED:2175712 EPMC:2175712
Bakali HM, Herman MD, Johnson KA, Kelly AA, Wieslander A, Hallberg BM, Nordlund P; , J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19644-19652.: Crystal structure of YegS, a homologue to the mammalian diacylglycerol kinases, reveals a novel regulatory metal binding site. PUBMED:17351295 EPMC:17351295
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||NAD_kinase Neisseria_PilC Peripla_BP_6 PFK Tim54|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||NAD_kinase|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001206
The DAG-kinase catalytic domain or DAGKc domain is present in mammalian lipid kinases, such as diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide and sphingosine kinases, as well as in related bacterial proteins [PUBMED:8626538, PUBMED:17351295]. Eukaryotic DAG-kinase (EC) catalyses the phosphorylation of DAG to phosphatidic acid, thus modulating the balance between the two signaling lipids. At least ten different isoforms have been identified in mammals, which form 5 groups characterised by different functional domains, such as the calcium-binding EF hand (see PROSITEDOC), PH (see PROSITEDOC), SAM (see PROSITEDOC) , DAG/PE-binding C1 domain (see PROSITEDOC) and ankyrin repeats (see PROSITEDOC) [PUBMED:17512245].
In bacteria, an integral membrane DAG kinase forms a homotrimeric protein that lacks the DAGKc domain (see PROSITEDOC). In contrast, the bacterial yegS protein is a soluble cytosolic protein that contains the DAGKc domain in the N-terminal part. YegS is a lipid kinase with two structural domains, wherein the active site is located in the interdomain cleft, C-terminal to the DAGKc domain which forms an alpha/beta fold [PUBMED:17351295]. The tertiary structure resembles that of NAD kinases and contains a metal-binding site in the C-terminal region [PUBMED:17351295, PUBMED:19112175].
This domain is usually associated with an accessory domain (see INTERPRO).
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||kinase activity (GO:0016301)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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This clan includes two SCOP superfamilies. Strong similarities between NAD kinases, DAG kinase, sphingosine kinase and PFK have previously been shown.
The clan contains the following 4 members:DAGK_cat NAD_kinase PFK Pfk_N
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the UniProtKB sequence database, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Alignment kindly provided by SMART|
|Author:||SMART, Coggill P|
|Number in seed:||106|
|Number in full:||19477|
|Average length of the domain:||124.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||24.73 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||25|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the DAGK_cat domain has been found. There are 50 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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