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202  structures 7450  species 0  interactions 11530  sequences 70  architectures

Family: TAL_FSA (PF00923)

Summary: Transaldolase/Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Transaldolase". More...

Transaldolase Edit Wikipedia article

Transaldolase is an enzyme (EC of the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. In humans, transaldolase is encoded by the TALDO1 gene.[3][4]

The following chemical reaction is catalyzed by transaldolase:

Clinical significance

The pentose phosphate pathway has two metabolic functions: (1) generation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced NADPH), for reductive biosynthesis, and (2) formation of ribose, which is an essential component of ATP, DNA, and RNA. Transaldolase links the pentose phosphate pathway to glycolysis. In patients with deficiency of transaldolase, there's an accumulation of erythritol (from erythrose 4-phosphate), D-arabitol, and ribitol.[5][6]

The deletion in 3 base pairs in the TALDO1 gene results in the absence of serine at position 171 of the transaldolase protein, which is part of a highly conserved region, suggesting that the mutation causes the transaldolase deficiency that is found in erythrocytes and lymphoblasts.[5] The deletion of this amino acid can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged spleen and liver) during early infancy. Transaldolase is also a target of autoimmunity in patients with multiple sclerosis.[7]


Active site of the transaldolase enzyme highlighting the key amino acid residues (Asp-27, Glu-106, and Lys-142) involved in catalysis.[1]

Transaldolase is a single domain composed of 337 amino acids. The core structure is an α/β barrel, similar to other class I aldolases, made up of eight parallel β-sheets and seven α-helices. There are also seven additional α-helices that are not part of the barrel. Hydrophobic amino acids are located between the β-sheets in the barrel and the surrounding α-helices to contribute to packing, such as the area containing Leu-168, Phe-170, Phe-189, Gly-311, and Phe-315. In the crystal, human transaldolase forms a dimer, with the two subunits connected by 18 residues in each subunit. See mechanism to the left for details.

The active site, located in the center of the barrel, contains three key residues: lysine-142, glutamate-106, and aspartate-27. The lysine holds the sugar in place while the glutamate and aspartate act as proton donors and acceptors.[1]

Mechanism of catalysis

The residue of lysine-142 in the active site of transaldolase forms a Schiff base with the keto group in sedoheptulose-7-phosphate after deprotonation by another active site residue, glutamate-106. The reaction mechanism is similar to the reverse reaction catalyzed by aldolase: The bond joining carbons 3 and 4 is broken, leaving dihydroxyacetone joined to the enzyme via a Schiff base. This cleavage reaction generates the unusual aldose sugar erythrose-4-phosphate. Then transaldolase catalyzes the condensation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate with the Schiff base of dihydroxyacetone, yielding enzyme-bound fructose 6-phosphate. Hydrolysis of the Schiff base liberates free fructose 6-phosphate, one of the products of the pentose phosphate pathway.

See also


  1. ^ a b c PDB: 1F05​; Thorell S, Gergely P, Banki K, Perl A, Schneider G (June 2000). "The three-dimensional structure of human transaldolase". FEBS Lett. 475 (3): 205–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01658-6. PMID 10869557.
  2. ^ Molecular graphics images were produced using the UCSF Chimera package from the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics at the University of California, San Francisco. Pettersen EF, Goddard TD, Huang CC, Couch GS, Greenblatt DM, Meng EC, Ferrin TE (October 2004). "UCSF Chimera–a visualization system for exploratory research and analysis". J Comput Chem. 25 (13): 1605–12. doi:10.1002/jcc.20084. PMID 15264254.
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: transaldolase 1".
  4. ^ Banki K, Eddy RL, Shows TB, Halladay DL, Bullrich F, Croce CM, Jurecic V, Baldini A, Perl A (October 1997). "The human transaldolase gene (TALDO1) is located on chromosome 11 at p15.4-p15.5". Genomics. 45 (1): 233–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4932. PMID 9339383.
  5. ^ a b c Verhoeven NM, Huck JH, Roos B, Struys EA, Salomons GS, Douwes AC, van der Knaap MS, Jakobs C (May 2001). "Transaldolase deficiency: liver cirrhosis associated with a new inborn error in the pentose phosphate pathway". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 68 (5): 1086–92. doi:10.1086/320108. PMC 1226089. PMID 11283793.
  6. ^ Perl A (June 2007). "The pathogenesis of transaldolase deficiency". IUBMB Life. 59 (6): 365–73. doi:10.1080/15216540701387188. PMID 17613166.
  7. ^ Niland B, Perl A (2004). Evaluation of autoimmunity to transaldolase in multiple sclerosis. Methods Mol. Med. 102. pp. 155–71. doi:10.1385/1-59259-805-6:155. ISBN 978-1-59259-805-2. PMID 15286385.
  8. ^ Jia J, Schörken U, Lindqvist Y, Sprenger GA, Schneider G (January 1997). "Crystal structure of the reduced Schiff-base intermediate complex of transaldolase B from Escherichia coli: mechanistic implications for class I aldolases". Protein Sci. 6 (1): 119–24. doi:10.1002/pro.5560060113. PMC 2143518. PMID 9007983.

External links

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Transaldolase/Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase Provide feedback

Transaldolase (TAL) is an enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) found almost ubiquitously in the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya). TAL shares a high degree of structural similarity and sequence identity with fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA). They both belong to the class I aldolase [4]. Their protein structures have been [5].

Literature references

  1. Choi KH, Shi J, Hopkins CE, Tolan DR, Allen KN; , Biochemistry 2001;40:13868-13875.: Snapshots of catalysis: the structure of fructose-1,6-(bis)phosphate aldolase covalently bound to the substrate dihydroxyacetone phosphate. PUBMED:11705376 EPMC:11705376

  2. Schorken U, Thorell S, Schurmann M, Jia J, Sprenger GA, Schneider G; , Eur J Biochem 2001;268:2408-2415.: Identification of catalytically important residues in the active site of Escherichia coli transaldolase. PUBMED:11298760 EPMC:11298760

  3. Thorell S, Gergely P Jr, Banki K, Perl A, Schneider G , FEBS Lett 2000;475:205-208.: The three-dimensional structure of human transaldolase. PUBMED:10869557 EPMC:10869557

  4. Sautner V, Friedrich MM, Lehwess-Litzmann A, Tittmann K;, Biochemistry. 2015;54:4475-4486.: Converting Transaldolase into Aldolase through Swapping of the Multifunctional Acid-Base Catalyst: Common and Divergent Catalytic Principles in F6P Aldolase and Transaldolase. PUBMED:26131847 EPMC:26131847

  5. Tittmann K;, Bioorg Chem. 2014;57:263-280.: Sweet siblings with different faces: the mechanisms of FBP and F6P aldolase, transaldolase, transketolase and phosphoketolase revisited in light of recent structural data. PUBMED:25267444 EPMC:25267444

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR001585

Transaldolase ( EC ) catalyses the reversible transfer of a three-carbon ketol unit from sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to form erythrose 4-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. This enzyme, together with transketolase, provides a link between the glycolytic and pentose-phosphate pathways. Transaldolase is an enzyme of about 34kDa whose sequence has been well conserved throughout evolution. A lysine has been implicated [ PUBMED:8109173 ] in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme; it acts as a nucleophilic group that attacks the carbonyl group of fructose-6-phosphate.

Transaldolase (TAL) is an enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) found almost ubiquitously in the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya). TAL shares a high degree of structural similarity and sequence identity with fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA) [ PUBMED:11120740 ]. They both belong to the class I aldolase family [ PUBMED:26131847 ]. Their protein structures have been revealed [ PUBMED:25267444 ].

Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase was originally thought to be transaldolases or transaldolase-related proteins. However, they perform a novel reaction, the cleavage or formation of fructose 6-phosphate [ PUBMED:11120740 ].

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Seed source: Pfam-B_787 (release 3.0)
Previous IDs: Transaldolase;
Type: Domain
Sequence Ontology: SO:0000417
Author: Bateman A , Griffiths-Jones SR
Number in seed: 122
Number in full: 11530
Average length of the domain: 270.40 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 30 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 87.56 %

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build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 20.9 20.9
Trusted cut-off 21.2 20.9
Noise cut-off 20.4 20.6
Model length: 287
Family (HMM) version: 21
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the TAL_FSA domain has been found. There are 202 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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