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16  structures 2502  species 1  interaction 5874  sequences 663  architectures

Family: LTD (PF00932)

Summary: Lamin Tail Domain

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Intermediate filament". More...

Intermediate filament Edit Wikipedia article

Intermediate filament tail domain
PDB 1ifr EBI.jpg
structure of lamin a/c globular domain
Intermediate filament rod domain
PDB 1gk4 EBI.jpg
human vimentin coil 2b fragment (cys2)
Intermediate filament head (DNA binding) region
Peripherin neuronal intermediate filament protein
Alt. symbolsNEF4
NCBI gene5630
Other data
LocusChr. 12 q13.12
Nestin neuronal stem cell intermediate filament protein
NCBI gene10763
Other data
LocusChr. 1 q23.1

Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal structural components found in the cells of vertebrates, and many invertebrates.[1][2][3] Homologues of the IF protein have been noted in an invertebrate, the cephalochordate Branchiostoma.[4]

Intermediate filaments are composed of a family of related proteins sharing common structural and sequence features. Initially designated 'intermediate' because their average diameter (10 nm) is between those of narrower microfilaments (actin) and wider myosin filaments found in muscle cells, the diameter of intermediate filaments is now commonly compared to actin microfilaments (7 nm) and microtubules (25 nm).[1][5] Intermediate filaments are subcategorized into six types based on similarities in amino acid sequence and protein structure.[6] Most types are cytoplasmic, but one type, Type V is a nuclear lamin. Unlike microtubules, IF distribution in cells show no good correlation with the distribution of either mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum.[7]


Structure of intermediate filament

The structure of proteins that form intermediate filaments (IF) was first predicted by computerized analysis of the amino acid sequence of a human epidermal keratin derived from cloned cDNAs.[8] Analysis of a second keratin sequence revealed that the two types of keratins share only about 30% amino acid sequence homology but share similar patterns of secondary structure domains.[9] As suggested by the first model, all IF proteins appear to have a central alpha-helical rod domain that is composed of four alpha-helical segments (named as 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B) separated by three linker regions.[9][10]

The central building block of an intermediate filament is a pair of two intertwined proteins that is called a coiled-coil structure. This name reflects the fact that the structure of each protein is helical, and the intertwined pair is also a helical structure. Structural analysis of a pair of keratins shows that the two proteins that form the coiled-coil bind by hydrophobic.[11][12] The charged residues in the central domain do not have a major role in the binding of the pair in the central domain.[11]

Cytoplasmic IFs assemble into non-polar unit-length filaments (ULFs). Identical ULFs associate laterally into staggered, antiparallel, soluble tetramers, which associate head-to-tail into protofilaments that pair up laterally into protofibrils, four of which wind together into an intermediate filament.[13] Part of the assembly process includes a compaction step, in which ULF tighten and assume a smaller diameter. The reasons for this compaction are not well understood, and IF are routinely observed to have diameters ranging between 6 and 12 nm.

The N-terminus and the C-terminus of IF proteins are non-alpha-helical regions and show wide variation in their lengths and sequences across IF families. The N-terminal "head domain" binds DNA.[14] Vimentin heads are able to alter nuclear architecture and chromatin distribution, and the liberation of heads by HIV-1 protease may play an important role in HIV-1 associated cytopathogenesis and carcinogenesis.[15] Phosphorylation of the head region can affect filament stability.[16] The head has been shown to interact with the rod domain of the same protein.[17]

C-terminal "tail domain" shows extreme length variation between different IF proteins.[18]

The anti-parallel orientation of tetramers means that, unlike microtubules and microfilaments, which have a plus end and a minus end, IFs lack polarity and cannot serve as basis for cell motility and intracellular transport.

Also, unlike actin or tubulin, intermediate filaments do not contain a binding site for a nucleoside triphosphate.

Cytoplasmic IFs do not undergo treadmilling like microtubules and actin fibers, but are dynamic.[19]

Biomechanical properties

IFs are rather deformable proteins that can be stretched several times their initial length.[20] The key to facilitate this large deformation is due to their hierarchical structure, which facilitates a cascaded activation of deformation mechanisms at different levels of strain.[12] Initially the coupled alpha-helices of unit-length filaments uncoil as they're strained, then as the strain increases they transition into beta-sheets, and finally at increased strain the hydrogen bonds between beta-sheets slip and the ULF monomers slide along each other.[12]


There are about 70 different genes coding for various intermediate filament proteins. However, different kinds of IFs share basic characteristics: In general, they are all polymers that measure between 9-11 nm in diameter when fully assembled.

IF are subcategorized into six types based on similarities in amino acid sequence and protein structure.[6]

Types I and II – acidic and basic keratins

Keratin intermediate filaments (stained red) around epithelial cells.

These proteins are the most diverse among IFs and constitute type I (acidic) and type II (basic) IF proteins. The many isoforms are divided in two groups:

Regardless of the group, keratins are either acidic or basic. Acidic and basic keratins bind each other to form acidic-basic heterodimers and these heterodimers then associate to make a keratin filament.[6]

Type III

There are four proteins classed as type III IF proteins, which may form homo- or heteropolymeric proteins.

Type IV

Type V - nuclear lamins

Lamins are fibrous proteins having structural function in the cell nucleus.

In metazoan cells, there are A and B type lamins, which differ in their length and pI. Human cells have three differentially regulated genes. B-type lamins are present in every cell. B type lamins, lamin B1 and B2, are expressed from the LMNB1 and LMNB2 genes on 5q23 and 19q13, respectively. A-type lamins are only expressed following gastrulation. Lamin A and C are the most common A-type lamins and are splice variants of the LMNA gene found at 1q21.

These proteins localize to two regions of the nuclear compartment, the nuclear lamina—a proteinaceous structure layer subjacent to the inner surface of the nuclear envelope and throughout the nucleoplasm in the nucleoplasmic veil.

Comparison of the lamins to vertebrate cytoskeletal IFs shows that lamins have an extra 42 residues (six heptads) within coil 1b. The c-terminal tail domain contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS), an Ig-fold-like domain, and in most cases a carboxy-terminal CaaX box that is isoprenylated and carboxymethylated (lamin C does not have a CAAX box). Lamin A is further processed to remove the last 15 amino acids and its farnesylated cysteine.

During mitosis, lamins are phosphorylated by MPF, which drives the disassembly of the lamina and the nuclear envelope.[6]

Type VI


Beaded Filaments-- Filensin, Phakinin

Cell adhesion

At the plasma membrane, some keratins interact with desmosomes (cell-cell adhesion) and hemidesmosomes (cell-matrix adhesion) via adapter proteins.

Associated proteins

Filaggrin binds to keratin fibers in epidermal cells. Plectin links vimentin to other vimentin fibers, as well as to microfilaments, microtubules, and myosin II. Kinesin is being researched and is suggested to connect vimentin to tubulin via motor proteins.

Keratin filaments in epithelial cells link to desmosomes (desmosomes connect the cytoskeleton together) through plakoglobin, desmoplakin, desmogleins, and desmocollins; desmin filaments are connected in a similar way in heart muscle cells.

Diseases arising from mutations in IF genes


  1. ^ a b Herrmann H, Bär H, Kreplak L, Strelkov SV, Aebi U (July 2007). "Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 8 (7): 562–73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197. PMID 17551517.
  2. ^ Chang L, Goldman RD (August 2004). "Intermediate filaments mediate cytoskeletal crosstalk". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 5 (8): 601–13. doi:10.1038/nrm1438. PMID 15366704.
  3. ^ Traub, P. (2012), Intermediate Filaments: A Review, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 33, ISBN 9783642702303CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ Karabinos A, Riemer D, Erber A, Weber K (October 1998). "Homologues of vertebrate type I, II and III intermediate filament (IF) proteins in an invertebrate: the IF multigene family of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma". FEBS Letters. 437 (1–2): 15–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01190-9. PMID 9804163.
  5. ^ Ishikawa H, Bischoff R, Holtzer H (September 1968). "Mitosis and intermediate-sized filaments in developing skeletal muscle". J. Cell Biol. 38 (3): 538–55. doi:10.1083/jcb.38.3.538. PMC 2108373. PMID 5664223.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Human Intermediate Filament Database".
  7. ^ Soltys, BJ and Gupta RS: Interrelationships of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, intermediate filaments, and microtubules-a quadruple fluorescence labeling study. Biochem. Cell. Biol. (1992) 70: 1174-1186
  8. ^ Hanukoglu I, Fuchs E (November 1982). "The cDNA sequence of a human epidermal keratin: divergence of sequence but conservation of structure among intermediate filament proteins". Cell. 31 (1): 243–52. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(82)90424-X. PMID 6186381.
  9. ^ a b Hanukoglu I, Fuchs E (July 1983). "The cDNA sequence of a Type II cytoskeletal keratin reveals constant and variable structural domains among keratins". Cell. 33 (3): 915–24. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(83)90034-X. PMID 6191871.
  10. ^ Lee CH, Kim MS, Chung BM, Leahy DJ, Coulombe PA (July 2012). "Structural basis for heteromeric assembly and perinuclear organization of keratin filaments". Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 19 (7): 707–15. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2330. PMC 3864793. PMID 22705788.
  11. ^ a b Hanukoglu I, Ezra L (Jan 2014). "Proteopedia: Coiled-coil structure of keratins". Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 42 (1): 93–94. doi:10.1002/bmb.20746. PMID 24265184.
  12. ^ a b c Qin Z, Kreplak L, Buehler MJ (2009). "Hierarchical structure controls nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filaments". PLoS ONE. 4 (10): e7294. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7294Q. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007294. PMC 2752800. PMID 19806221.
  13. ^ Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. (2000). Molecular Cell Biology. New York: W. H. Freeman. p. Section 19.6, Intermediate Filaments. ISBN 978-0-07-243940-3.
  14. ^ Wang Q, Tolstonog GV, Shoeman R, Traub P (August 2001). "Sites of nucleic acid binding in type I-IV intermediate filament subunit proteins". Biochemistry. 40 (34): 10342–9. doi:10.1021/bi0108305. PMID 11513613.
  15. ^ Shoeman RL, Huttermann C, Hartig R, Traub P (January 2001). "Amino-terminal polypeptides of vimentin are responsible for the changes in nuclear architecture associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease activity in tissue culture cells". Mol. Biol. Cell. 12 (1): 143–54. doi:10.1091/mbc.12.1.143. PMC 30574. PMID 11160829.
  16. ^ Takemura M, Gomi H, Colucci-Guyon E, Itohara S (August 2002). "Protective role of phosphorylation in turnover of glial fibrillary acidic protein in mice". J. Neurosci. 22 (16): 6972–9. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-16-06972.2002. PMC 6757867. PMID 12177195.
  17. ^ Parry DA, Marekov LN, Steinert PM, Smith TA (2002). "A role for the 1A and L1 rod domain segments in head domain organization and function of intermediate filaments: structural analysis of trichocyte keratin". J. Struct. Biol. 137 (1–2): 97–108. doi:10.1006/jsbi.2002.4437. PMID 12064937.
  18. ^ Quinlan R, Hutchison C, Lane B (1995). "Intermediate filament proteins". Protein Profile. 2 (8): 795–952. PMID 8771189.
  19. ^ Helfand, Brian T.; Chang, Lynne; Goldman, Robert D. (15 January 2004). "Intermediate filaments are dynamic and motile elements of cellular architecture". Journal of Cell Science. 117 (2): 133–141. doi:10.1242/jcs.00936. PMID 14676269. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  20. ^ Herrmann H, Bär H, Kreplak L, Strelkov SV, Aebi U (July 2007). "Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562–73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197. PMID 17551517.Qin Z, Kreplak L, Buehler MJ (2009). "Hierarchical structure controls nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filaments". PLoS ONE. 4 (10): e7294. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7294Q. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007294. PMC 2752800. PMID 19806221.Kreplak L, Fudge D (January 2007). "Biomechanical properties of intermediate filaments: from tissues to single filaments and back". BioEssays. 29 (1): 26–35. doi:10.1002/bies.20514. PMID 17187357.Qin Z, Buehler MJ, Kreplak L (January 2010). "A multi-scale approach to understand the mechanobiology of intermediate filaments". J Biomech. 43 (1): 15–22. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.09.004. PMID 19811783.Qin Z, Kreplak L, Buehler MJ (October 2009). "Nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filament dimers". Nanotechnology. 20 (42): 425101. Bibcode:2009Nanot..20P5101Q. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/20/42/425101. PMID 19779230.
  21. ^ Steinert PM, Chou YH, Prahlad V, Parry DA, Marekov LN, Wu KC, Jang SI, Goldman RD (April 1999). "A high molecular weight intermediate filament-associated protein in BHK-21 cells is nestin, a type VI intermediate filament protein. Limited co-assembly in vitro to form heteropolymers with type III vimentin and type IV alpha-internexin". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (14): 9881–90. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.14.9881. PMID 10092680.
  22. ^ Klauke B, Kossmann S, Gaertner A, Brand K, Stork I, Brodehl A, Dieding M, Walhorn V, Anselmetti D, Gerdes D, Bohms B, Schulz U, Zu Knyphausen E, Vorgerd M, Gummert J, Milting H (December 2010). "De novo desmin-mutation N116S is associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy". Hum. Mol. Genet. 19 (23): 4595–607. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq387. PMID 20829228.
  23. ^ Brodehl A, Hedde PN, Dieding M, Fatima A, Walhorn V, Gayda S, Å arić T, Klauke B, Gummert J, Anselmetti D, Heilemann M, Nienhaus GU, Milting H (May 2012). "Dual color photoactivation localization microscopy of cardiomyopathy-associated desmin mutants". J. Biol. Chem. 287 (19): 16047–57. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.313841. PMC 3346104. PMID 22403400.

Further reading

External links

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR001322
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR006821

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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Lamin Tail Domain Provide feedback

The lamin-tail domain (LTD), which has an immunoglobulin (Ig) fold, is found in Nuclear Lamins, Chlo1887 from Chloroflexus, and several bacterial proteins where it occurs with membrane associated hydrolases of the metallo-beta-lactamase,synaptojanin, and calcineurin-like phosphoesterase superfamilies [1].

Literature references

  1. Mans BJ, Anantharaman V, Aravind L, Koonin EV;, Cell Cycle. 2004;3:1612-1637.: Comparative genomics, evolution and origins of the nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complex. PUBMED:15611647 EPMC:15611647

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR001322

Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a major structural element of metazoan cells. They build two distinct systems: one inside the nucleus attached to the inner membrane, and one that is cytoplasmic, which connects intercellular junctional complexes situated at the plasma membrane with the outer nuclear membrane. In both cases, their major function is assumed to be that of a mechanical stress absorber and an integrating device for the entire cytoskeleton. In the nucleus, the IF system is assembled from lamins, which together with an ever increasing number of associated transmembrane and chromatin-binding proteins constitute the nuclear lamina. Despite the large diversity among IF proteins, they all share a similar structural building plan, with a long central alpha-helical 'rod' domain that is flanked by non-alpha-helical N- and C-terminal end domains called 'head' and 'tail', respectively [PUBMED:17551517,PUBMED:1794458].

Lamins exhibit a highly conserved globular C-terminal lamin-tail domain (LTD) which has the immunoglobulin (Ig) fold. Invertebrate cytoplasmic IFs share sequence similarity with nuclear lamins and also contain a C-terminal tail domain with homology to the LTD [PUBMED:15611647].

Domains homologous to the LTD have been detected in several uncharacterized proteins from phylogenetically diverse bacteria and two archaea, Methanosarcina and Halobacterium. In several bacterial proteins, the LTD cooccurs with membrane-associated hydrolases of the metallo-beta-lactamase, synaptojanin, and calcineurin-like phosphoesterase superfamilies. In other secreted or periplasmic bacterial proteins, the LTDs are associated with oligosaccharide-binding domains or are present as multiple tandem repeats in a single protein. These associations suggest a potential role for the prokaryotic LTDs in tethering proteins to the membrane or membrane-associated structures. In contrast to the bacterial homologs, all animal LTDs are closely related and are contained in proteins with a stereotypic architecture. The precursor of the animal LTD might have been acquired via horizontal gene transfer from bacteria relatively late in the evolution of the eukaryotic crown group. Subsequent to this acquisition, a coiled-coil domain, derived from preexisting intermediate filament coil-coils, might have been fused to the N-termini of the LTD [PUBMED:15611647].

The LTD domain could be involved both in protein and DNA binding [PUBMED:12057196]. The LTD domain adopts an Ig-like fold of type s. It consists of a 2-layered sandwich of 9 anti-parallel beta-strands arranged in two beta- sheets with a Greek key topology. One of the sheets has five beta-strands while the other has four. Seven of the 9 strands are present in the classical Ig fold topology [PUBMED:12057196, PUBMED:22265972].

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan E-set (CL0159), which has the following description:

This clan includes a diverse range of domains that have an Ig-like fold and appear to be distantly related to each other. The clan includes: PKD domains, cadherins and several families of bacterial Ig-like domains as well as viral tail fibre proteins. it also includes several Fibronectin type III domain-containing families.

The clan contains the following 233 members:

A2M A2M_BRD A2M_recep Adeno_GP19K AlcCBM31 Alpha-amylase_N Alpha_adaptinC2 Alpha_E2_glycop Arch_flagellin aRib Arylsulfotran_N ASF1_hist_chap ATG19_autophagy BACON BACON_2 BatD BIg21 Big_1 Big_10 Big_11 Big_12 Big_13 Big_2 Big_3 Big_3_2 Big_3_3 Big_3_4 Big_3_5 Big_4 Big_5 Big_6 Big_7 Big_8 Big_9 Bile_Hydr_Trans BiPBP_C bMG1 bMG10 bMG3 bMG5 bMG6 BslA BsuPI Cadherin Cadherin-like Cadherin_2 Cadherin_3 Cadherin_4 Cadherin_5 Cadherin_pro CagX Calx-beta Candida_ALS_N CARDB CBM39 CBM_X2 CD45 CelD_N Ceramidse_alk_C CHB_HEX_C CHB_HEX_C_1 ChitinaseA_N ChiW_Ig_like Chlam_OMP6 CHU_C Coatamer_beta_C COP-gamma_platf CopC CshA_repeat Cyc-maltodext_N Cytomega_US3 DsbC DUF11 DUF1410 DUF1425 DUF1929 DUF2271 DUF3244 DUF3327 DUF3416 DUF3458 DUF3501 DUF3823_C DUF3859 DUF4165 DUF4179 DUF4426 DUF4469 DUF4625 DUF4879 DUF4959 DUF4981 DUF4982 DUF4998 DUF5001 DUF5008 DUF5011 DUF5065 DUF5115 DUF525 DUF5643 DUF916 EB_dh ECD EpoR_lig-bind ERAP1_C EstA_Ig_like Expansin_C Filamin FixG_C Flavi_glycop_C FlgD_ig fn3 Fn3-like fn3_2 fn3_4 fn3_5 fn3_6 FN3_7 Fn3_assoc fn3_PAP GBS_Bsp-like Glucodextran_B Glyco_hydro2_C5 Glyco_hydro_2 Glyco_hydro_61 Gmad2 GMP_PDE_delta GPI-anchored Hanta_G1 He_PIG HECW_N HemeBinding_Shp Hemocyanin_C Herpes_BLLF1 HYR IFNGR1 Ig_GlcNase Ig_mannosidase IL12p40_C Il13Ra_Ig IL17R_fnIII_D1 IL17R_fnIII_D2 IL2RB_N1 IL3Ra_N IL4Ra_N IL6Ra-bind Inhibitor_I42 Inhibitor_I71 InlK_D3 Integrin_alpha2 Interfer-bind Invasin_D3 IRK_C IrmA Iron_transport LEA_2 Lep_receptor_Ig LIFR_N Lipase_bact_N LPMO_10 LRR_adjacent LTD Mannosidase_ig MetallophosC MG1 MG2 MG3 MG4 Mo-co_dimer N_BRCA1_IG Na_K-ATPase NEAT Neocarzinostat Neurexophilin NPCBM_assoc PapD_C PBP-Tp47_c Peptidase_C25_C Phlebo_G2_C PhoD_N PKD PKD_2 PKD_3 PKD_4 Por_Secre_tail Pox_vIL-18BP Psg1 Pur_ac_phosph_N Qn_am_d_aII Qn_am_d_aIII RabGGT_insert Reeler REJ RET_CLD1 RET_CLD3 RET_CLD4 RGI_lyase RHD_dimer Rho_GDI Rib RibLong SCAB-Ig SKICH SLAM SoxZ SprB SusE SVA SWM_repeat T2SS-T3SS_pil_N Tafi-CsgC TarS_C1 TcA_RBD TcfC TIG TIG_2 TIG_plexin Tissue_fac Top6b_C Transglut_C Transglut_N TRAP_beta TraQ_transposon Tuberculin UL16 Velvet WIF Wzt_C Y_Y_Y YBD ZirS_C Zona_pellucida


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Curation and family details

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Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Anantharaman V
Previous IDs: IF_C_term; IF_tail;
Type: Domain
Sequence Ontology: SO:0000417
Author: Finn RD , Bateman A , Anantharaman V
Number in seed: 157
Number in full: 5874
Average length of the domain: 118.20 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 18 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 18.32 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 34.3 34.3
Trusted cut-off 34.3 34.3
Noise cut-off 34.2 34.2
Model length: 113
Family (HMM) version: 20
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Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
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Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the LTD domain has been found. There are 16 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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