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Presenilin Edit Wikipedia article
(Alzheimer's disease 3)
|Locus||Chr. 14 q24.3|
(Alzheimer's disease 4)
|Locus||Chr. 1 q31-q42|
Presenilins are a family of related multi-pass transmembrane proteins which constitute the catalytic subunits of the gamma-secretase intramembrane protease complex. They were first identified in screens for mutations causing early onset forms of familial Alzheimer's disease by Peter St George-Hyslop at the Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases at the University of Toronto, and now also at the University of Cambridge. Vertebrates have two presenilin genes, called PSEN1 (located on chromosome 14 in humans) that encodes presenilin 1 (PS-1) and PSEN2 (on chromosome 1 in humans) that codes for presenilin 2 (PS-2). Both genes show conservation between species, with little difference between rat and human presenilins. The nematode worm C. elegans has two genes that resemble the presenilins and appear to be functionally similar, sel-12 and hop-1.
Presenilins undergo cleavage in an alpha helical region of one of the cytoplasmic loops to produce a large N-terminal and a smaller C-terminal fragment that together form part of the functional protein. Cleavage of presenilin 1 can be prevented by a mutation that causes the loss of exon 9, and results in loss of function. Presenilins play a key role in the modulation of intracellular Ca2+ involved in presynaptic neurotransmitter release and long-term potentiation induction.
The structure of presenilin-1 is still controversial, although recent research has produced a more widely accepted model. When first discovered, the PSEN1 gene was subjected to hydrophobicity analysis that predicted that the protein would contain ten trans-membrane domains. All previous models agreed that the first six putative membrane-spanning regions cross the membrane. These regions correspond to the N-terminal fragment of PS-1 but the structure of the C-terminal fragment was disputed. A recent paper by Spasic et al. provides strong evidence of a nine transmembrane structure with cleavage and assembly into the gamma-secretase complex prior to insertion into the plasma membrane. However, because this is a protein with large numbers of hydrophobic regions, it is unlikely that x-ray crystallography will provide definitive proof of the structure.
The structure of the presenilin-1 C-terminal catalytic fragment was determined using solution NMR. It is made up of alpha helices and is 176 amino acids in length. It was found that Alzheimer's patients carry mutations in the presenilin proteins (PSEN1; PSEN2).
Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are not hereditary. However, there is a small subset of cases that have an earlier age of onset and have a strong genetic element. In patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (autosomal dominant hereditary), mutations in the presenilin proteins (PSEN1; PSEN2) or the amyloid precursor protein (APP) can be found. The majority of these cases carry mutant presenilin genes. An important part of the disease process in Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of Amyloid beta (AÎ²) protein. To form AÎ², APP must be cut by two enzymes, beta secretases and gamma secretase. Presenilin is the sub-component of gamma secretase that is responsible for the cutting of APP.
Gamma secretase can cut APP at several points within a small region of the protein, which results in AÎ² of various lengths. The lengths associated with Alzheimer's disease are 40 and 42 amino acids long. AÎ² 42 is more likely to aggregate to form plaques in the brain than AÎ² 40. Presenilin mutations lead to an increase in the ratio of AÎ² 42 produced compared to AÎ² 40, although the total quantity of AÎ² produced remains constant. This can come about by various effects of the mutations upon gamma secretase. Presenilins are also implicated in the processing of notch, an important developmental protein. Mice that have the PS1 gene knocked out die early in development from developmental abnormalities similar to those found when notch is disrupted.
The genes for the presenilins were found through linkage studies using mutations present in familial Alzheimer's cases in 1995.
The genetic inactivation of presenilins in hippocampal synapses has shown this selectively affects the long-term potentiation caused by theta with the inactivation in presynapse but not the postsynapse impairing short-term plasticity and synaptic facilitation. The release of glutamate was also reduced in presynaptic terminals by processes that involve modulation of intracellular Ca2+ release. This has been suggested to "represent a general convergent mechanism leading to neurodegeneration".
- Sobhanifar, S; Schneider, B; LÃ¶hr, F; Gottstein, D; Ikeya, T; Mlynarczyk, K; Pulawski, W; Ghoshdastider, U; Kolinski, M; Filipek, S; GÃ¼ntert, P; Bernhard, F; DÃ¶tsch, V (2010). "Structural investigation of the C-terminal catalytic fragment of presenilin 1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (21): 9644â€“9. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.9644S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1000778107. PMC 2906861. PMID 20445084.
- doi:10.2210/pdb2kr6/pdb. ; Doetsch V (2010). "Solution structure of presenilin-1 CTF subunit". To be Published.
- Sherrington R, Rogaev EI, Liang Y, Rogaeva EA, Levesque G, Ikeda M, Chi H, Lin C, Li G, Holman K (June 1995). "Cloning of a gene bearing missense mutations in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease". Nature. 375 (6534): 754â€“60. Bibcode:1995Natur.375..754S. doi:10.1038/375754a0. PMID 7596406.
- Levy-Lahad E, Wasco W, Poorkaj P, Romano DM, Oshima J, Pettingell WH, Yu CE, Jondro PD, Schmidt SD, Wang K, Crowley AC, Fu YH, Guenette SY, Galas D, Nemens E, Wijsman EM, Bird TD, Schellenberg GD, Tanzi RE (September 1995). "Candidate gene for the chromosome 1 familial Alzheimer's disease locus". Science. 269 (5226): 973â€“977. Bibcode:1995Sci...269..973L. doi:10.1126/science.7638622. PMID 7638622.
- Smialowska A, Baumeister R (2006). "Presenilin function in Caenorhabditis elegans". Neurodegener Dis. 3 (4â€“5): 227â€“32. doi:10.1159/000095260. PMID 17047361.
- Zhang C, Wu B, Beglopoulos V, Wines-Samuelson M, Zhang D, Dragatsis I, SÃ¼dhof TC, Shen J (July 2009). "Presenilins are Essential for Regulating Neurotransmitter Release". Nature. 460 (7255): 632â€“6. Bibcode:2009Natur.460..632Z. doi:10.1038/nature08177. PMC 2744588. PMID 19641596.
- Spasic D, Tolia A, Dillen K, Baert V, De Strooper B, Vrijens S, Annaert W (September 2006). "Presenilin-1 maintains a nine-transmembrane topology throughout the secretory pathway". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (36): 26569â€“77. doi:10.1074/jbc.M600592200. PMID 16846981.
- Doetsch, V. "2KR6: Solution structure of presenilin-1 CTF subunit". To be Published. doi:10.2210/pdb2kr6/pdb. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Citron M, Westaway D, Xia W, Carlson G, Diehl T, Levesque G, Johnson-Wood K, Lee M, Seubert P, Davis A, Kholodenko D, Motter R, Sherrington R, Perry B, Yao H, Strome R, Lieberburg I, Rommens J, Kim S, Schenk D, Fraser P, St George Hyslop P, Selkoe DJ (January 1997). "Mutant presenilins of Alzheimer's disease increase production of 42-residue amyloid beta-protein in both transfected cells and transgenic mice". Nat. Med. 3 (1): 67â€“72. doi:10.1038/nm0197-67. PMID 8986743.
- Bentahir M, Nyabi O, Verhamme J, Tolia A, HorrÃ© K, Wiltfang J, Esselmann H, De Strooper B (February 2006). "Presenilin clinical mutations can affect gamma-secretase activity by different mechanisms". J. Neurochem. 96 (3): 732â€“42. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03578.x. PMID 16405513.
- Shen J, Bronson RT, Chen DF, Xia W, Selkoe DJ, Tonegawa S (May 1997). "Skeletal and CNS defects in Presenilin-1-deficient mice". Cell. 89 (4): 629â€“39. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80244-5. PMID 9160754.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Presenilin Provide feedback
Mutations in presenilin-1 are a major cause of early onset Alzheimer's disease . It has been found that presenilin-1 (P49768) binds to beta-catenin in-vivo . This family also contains SPE proteins from C.elegans.
Zhang Z, Hartmann H, Do VM, Abramowski D, Sturchler-Pierrat C, Staufenbiel M, Sommer B, van de Wetering M, Clevers H, Saftig P, De Strooper B, He X, Yankner BA; , Nature 1998;395:698-702.: Destabilisation of beta-catenin by mutations in presenilin-1 potentiates neuronal apoptosis. PUBMED:9790190 EPMC:9790190
Internal database links
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001108
Aspartic peptidases, also known as aspartyl proteases ([intenz:3.4.23.-]), are widely distributed proteolytic enzymes [ PUBMED:6795036 , PUBMED:2194475 , PUBMED:1851433 ] known to exist in vertebrates, fungi, plants, protozoa, bacteria, archaea, retroviruses and some plant viruses. All known aspartic peptidases are endopeptidases. A water molecule, activated by two aspartic acid residues, acts as the nucleophile in catalysis. Aspartic peptidases can be grouped into five clans, each of which shows a unique structural fold [ PUBMED:8439290 ].
- Peptidases in clan AA are either bilobed (family A1 or the pepsin family) or are a homodimer (all other families in the clan, including retropepsin from HIV-1/AIDS) [ PUBMED:2682266 ]. Each lobe consists of a single domain with a closed beta-barrel and each lobe contributes one Asp to form the active site. Most peptidases in the clan are inhibited by the naturally occurring small-molecule inhibitor pepstatin [ PUBMED:4912600 ].
- Clan AC contains the single family A8: the signal peptidase 2 family. Members of the family are found in all bacteria. Signal peptidase 2 processes the premurein precursor, removing the signal peptide. The peptidase has four transmembrane domains and the active site is on the periplasmic side of the cell membrane. Cleavage occurs on the amino side of a cysteine where the thiol group has been substituted by a diacylglyceryl group. Site-directed mutagenesis has identified two essential aspartic acid residues which occur in the motifs GNXXDRX and FNXAD (where X is a hydrophobic residue) [ PUBMED:10497172 ]. No tertiary structures have been solved for any member of the family, but because of the intramembrane location, the structure is assumed not to be pepsin-like.
- Clan AD contains two families of transmembrane endopeptidases: A22 and A24. These are also known as "GXGD peptidases" because of a common GXGD motif which includes one of the pair of catalytic aspartic acid residues. Structures are known for members of both families and show a unique, common fold with up to nine transmembrane regions [ PUBMED:21765428 ]. The active site aspartic acids are located within a large cavity in the membrane into which water can gain access [ PUBMED:23254940 ].
- Clan AE contains two families, A25 and A31. Tertiary structures have been solved for members of both families and show a common fold consisting of an alpha-beta-alpha sandwich, in which the beta sheet is five stranded [ PUBMED:10331925 , PUBMED:10864493 ].
- Clan AF contains the single family A26. Members of the clan are membrane-proteins with a unique fold. Homologues are known only from bacteria. The structure of omptin (also known as OmpT) shows a cylindrical barrel containing ten beta strands inserted in the membrane with the active site residues on the outer surface [ PUBMED:11566868 ].
- There are two families of aspartic peptidases for which neither structure nor active site residues are known and these are not assigned to clans. Family A5 includes thermopsin, an endopeptidase found only in thermophilic archaea. Family A36 contains sporulation factor SpoIIGA, which is known to process and activate sigma factor E, one of the transcription factors that controls sporulation in bacteria [ PUBMED:21751400 ].
Presenilins are polytopic transmembrane (TM) proteins, mutations in which are associated with the occurrence of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease, a rare form of the disease that results from a single-gene mutation [ PUBMED:9791530 , PUBMED:9521418 ]. Alzheimer's disease is associated with the formation of extracellular deposits of amyloid, which contain aggregates of the amyloid-beta peptide. The beta-peptides are released from the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the action of two peptidase activities: "beta-secretase" cleaves at the N terminus of the peptide, and "gamma-secretase" cleaves at the C terminus. The gamma-secretase cleavage occurs in a transmembrane segment of APP. Presenilin, which exists in a complex with nicastrin, APH-1 and PEN-2, has been identified as gamma-secretase from its deficiency [ PUBMED:9450754 ] and mutation of its active site residues [ PUBMED:10206644 ], but proteolytic activity has only been directly demonstrated on a peptide derived from APP [ PUBMED:9450754 ].
Presenilin has nine transmembrane regions with the active site aspartic acid residues located on TM6, within a Tyr-Asp motif, and TM7, within a Gly-Xaa-Gly-Asp motif [ PUBMED:10206644 ]. The protein autoprocesses to form an amino-terminal fragment (TMs 1-6) and a C-terminal fragment (TMs 7-9) [ PUBMED:8755489 ]. The tertiary structure of the human gamma-sectretase complex has been solved [ PUBMED:26280335 ]. Nicastrin is extracellular, whereas presenilin-1, APH-1 and PEN-2 are all transmembrane proteins. The transmembrane regions of all three proteins form a horseshoe shape.
This group of aspartic peptidases belong to MEROPS peptidase family A22 (presenilin family), subfamily A22A, the type example being presenilin 1 from Homo sapiens (Human).
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||integral component of membrane (GO:0016021)|
|Molecular function||aspartic-type endopeptidase activity (GO:0004190)|
|Biological process||protein processing (GO:0016485)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
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Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
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Members of this clan are peptidases that are integral membrane proteins. The catalytic aspartate is in the conserved GXGD motif.
The clan contains the following 4 members:Peptidase_A22B Peptidase_A24 Presenilin SPP
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
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You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_789 (release 3.0)|
|Author:||Bateman A , Finn RD|
|Number in seed:||55|
|Number in full:||2353|
|Average length of the domain:||254.50 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||34 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||82.52 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||19|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Presenilin domain has been found. There are 9 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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