Summary: Urocanase Rossmann-like domain
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Urocanase Edit Wikipedia article
Crystal structure of Urocanase from B. subtilis.
Urocanase (also known as imidazolonepropionate hydrolase or urocanate hydratase) is the enzyme that catalyzes the second step in the degradation of histidine, the hydration of urocanate into imidazolonepropionate.
Urocanase is coded for by the UROC1 gene, located on the 3rd chromosome in humans. The protein itself is composed of 676 amino acids which then fold, producing the final product which has 2 identical subunits, making the enzyme a homodimer.
To catalyze the hydrolysis of urocanate in the catabolic pathway of L-histidine the enzyme utilizes its two NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adnene Dinucleotide) groups. The NAD+ groups act as electrophiles, attaching to the top carbon of the urocanate which leads to sigmatropic rearrangement of the urocanate molecule. This rearrangement allows for the addition of a water molecule, converting the urocanate into 4,5-dihydro-4-oxo-5-imidazolepropanoate.
Inherited deficiency of urocanase leads to elevated levels of urocanic acid in the urine, a condition known as urocanic aciduria.
Urocanase is found in some bacteria (gene hutU), in the liver of many vertebrates and has also been found in the plant Trifolium repens (white clover). Urocanase is a protein of about 60 Kd, it binds tightly to NAD+ and uses it as an electrophil cofactor. A conserved cysteine has been found to be important for the catalytic mechanism and could be involved in the binding of the NAD+.
- RÃ©tey J (October 1994). "The urocanase story: a novel role of NAD+ as electrophile". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 314 (1): 1â€“16. doi:10.1006/abbi.1994.1405. PMID 7944380.
- "UROC1 Gene". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2016-11-03.
- Kevin Tokoph (2014-12-23), Urocanate Hydratase Mechanism, retrieved 2016-11-03
- EspinÃ³s C, Pineda M, MartÃnez-Rubio D, Lupo V, Ormazabal A, Vilaseca MA, Spaapen LJ, Palau F, Artuch R (June 2009). "Mutations in the urocanase gene UROC1 are associated with urocanic aciduria" (PDF). Journal of Medical Genetics. 46 (6): 407â€“11. doi:10.1136/jmg.2008.060632. hdl:10261/41793. PMID 19304569.
- Urocanate+Hydratase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- EC 18.104.22.168
|This enzyme-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
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Urocanase Rossmann-like domain Provide feedback
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External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR035085
] (also known as imidazolonepropionate hydrolase or urocanate hydratase) is the enzyme that catalyses the second step in the degradation of histidine, the hydration of urocanate into imidazolonepropionate:
This entry represents the central domain, with a rossmann-like fold, found in Urocanase.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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A class of redox enzymes are two domain proteins. One domain, termed the catalytic domain, confers substrate specificity and the precise reaction of the enzyme. The other domain, which is common to this class of redox enzymes, is a Rossmann-fold domain. The Rossmann domain binds nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and it is this cofactor that reversibly accepts a hydride ion, which is lost or gained by the substrate in the redox reaction. Rossmann domains have an alpha/beta fold, which has a central beta sheet, with approximately five alpha helices found surrounding the beta sheet.The strands forming the beta sheet are found in the following characteristic order 654123. The inter sheet crossover of the stands in the sheet form the NAD+ binding site . In some more distantly relate Rossmann domains the NAD+ cofactor is replaced by the functionally similar cofactor FAD.
The clan contains the following 209 members:2-Hacid_dh_C 3Beta_HSD 3HCDH_N 3HCDH_RFF adh_short adh_short_C2 ADH_zinc_N ADH_zinc_N_2 AdoHcyase_NAD AdoMet_MTase AlaDh_PNT_C Amino_oxidase ApbA AviRa B12-binding Bac_GDH Bin3 Bmt2 BMT5-like BpsA_C CARME CbiJ CheR CMAS CmcI CoA_binding CoA_binding_2 CoA_binding_3 Cons_hypoth95 CoV_ExoN CoV_Methyltr_2 DAO DapB_N DFP DNA_methylase DOT1 DRE2_N DREV DUF1442 DUF1611_N DUF166 DUF1776 DUF268 DUF2855 DUF3410 DUF364 DUF5129 DUF5130 DUF6094 DUF938 DXP_reductoisom DXPR_C Eco57I ELFV_dehydrog Eno-Rase_FAD_bd Eno-Rase_NADH_b Enoyl_reductase Epimerase F420_oxidored FAD_binding_2 FAD_binding_3 FAD_oxidored Fibrillarin FMO-like FmrO FtsJ fvmX7 G6PD_N GCD14 GDI GDP_Man_Dehyd GFO_IDH_MocA GIDA GidB GLF Glu_dehyd_C Glyco_hydro_4 Glyco_tran_WecG GMC_oxred_N Gp_dh_N GRAS GRDA HcgC HI0933_like HIM1 IlvN ISPD_C KR LCM Ldh_1_N LpxI_N Lycopene_cycl Lys_Orn_oxgnase Malic_M Mannitol_dh MCRA Met_10 Methyltr_RsmB-F Methyltr_RsmF_N Methyltrans_Mon Methyltrans_SAM Methyltransf_10 Methyltransf_11 Methyltransf_12 Methyltransf_14 Methyltransf_15 Methyltransf_16 Methyltransf_17 Methyltransf_18 Methyltransf_19 Methyltransf_2 Methyltransf_20 Methyltransf_21 Methyltransf_22 Methyltransf_23 Methyltransf_24 Methyltransf_25 Methyltransf_28 Methyltransf_29 Methyltransf_3 Methyltransf_30 Methyltransf_31 Methyltransf_32 Methyltransf_33 Methyltransf_34 Methyltransf_4 Methyltransf_5 Methyltransf_7 Methyltransf_8 Methyltransf_9 Methyltransf_PK MethyltransfD12 MetW Mg-por_mtran_C MmeI_Mtase MOLO1 Mqo MT-A70 MTS Mur_ligase N6-adenineMlase N6_Mtase N6_N4_Mtase NAD_binding_10 NAD_binding_2 NAD_binding_3 NAD_binding_4 NAD_binding_5 NAD_binding_7 NAD_binding_8 NAD_binding_9 NAD_Gly3P_dh_N NAS NmrA NNMT_PNMT_TEMT NodS OCD_Mu_crystall OpcA_G6PD_assem Orbi_VP4 PALP PARP_regulatory PCMT PDH_N PglD_N Polysacc_syn_2C Polysacc_synt_2 Pox_MCEL Pox_mRNA-cap Prenylcys_lyase PrmA PRMT5 Pyr_redox Pyr_redox_2 Pyr_redox_3 Reovirus_L2 RmlD_sub_bind Rossmann-like rRNA_methylase RrnaAD Rsm22 RsmJ Sacchrp_dh_NADP SAM_MT SE Semialdhyde_dh Shikimate_DH Spermine_synth SRR1 TehB THF_DHG_CYH_C Thi4 ThiF TPM_phosphatase TPMT TrkA_N TRM TRM13 TrmK tRNA_U5-meth_tr Trp_halogenase TylF Ubie_methyltran UDPG_MGDP_dh_N UPF0020 UPF0146 Urocanase V_cholerae_RfbT XdhC_C YjeF_N
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Author:||Finn RD , Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||130|
|Number in full:||4769|
|Average length of the domain:||207.20 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||45 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||36.08 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||21|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
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Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Urocanase domain has been found. There are 22 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.
|Protein||Predicted structure||External Information|
|D3ZIC2||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|F1QPT1||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q2FVT5||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q4D9S6||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q86AX3||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q8VC12||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q96N76||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q9NAE2||View 3D Structure||Click here|