Summary: GPCR proteolysis site, GPS, motif
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GPCR proteolysis site, GPS, motif Provide feedback
The GPS motif is found in GPCRs, and is the site for auto-proteolysis, so is thus named, GPS [1,2,3,4]. The GPS motif is a conserved sequence of ~40 amino acids containing canonical cysteine and tryptophan residues, and is the most highly conserved part of the domain. In most, if not all, cell-adhesion GPCRs these undergo autoproteolysis in the GPS between a conserved aliphatic residue (usually a leucine) and a threonine, serine, or cysteine residue . In higher eukaryotes this motif is found embedded in the C-terminal beta-stranded part of a GAIN domain - GPCR-Autoproteolysis INducing (GAIN). The GAIN-GPS domain adopts a fold in which the GPS motif, at the C-terminus, forms five beta-strands that are tightly integrated into the overall GAIN domain. The GPS motif, evolutionarily conserved from tetrahymena to mammals, is the only extracellular domain shared by all human cell-adhesion GPCRs and PKD proteins, and is the locus of multiple human disease mutations. The GAIN-GPS domain is both necessary and sufficient functionally for autoproteolysis, suggesting an autoproteolytic mechanism whereby the overall GAIN domain fine-tunes the chemical environment in the GPS to catalyse peptide bond hydrolysis . In the cell-adhesion GPCRs and PKD proteins, the GPS motif is always located at the end of their long N-terminal extracellular regions, immediately before the first transmembrane helix of the respective protein.
Krasnoperov V, Bittner MA, Holz RW, Chepurny O, Petrenko AG; , J Biol Chem 1999;274:3590-3596.: Structural requirements for alpha-latrotoxin binding and alpha- latrotoxin-stimulated secretion. A study with calcium-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin (CIRL) deletion mutants. PUBMED:9920906 EPMC:9920906
Sugita S, Ichtchenko K, Khvotchev M, Sudhof TC; , J Biol Chem 1998;273:32715-32724.: alpha-Latrotoxin receptor CIRL/latrophilin 1 (CL1) defines an unusual family of ubiquitous G-protein-linked receptors. G-protein coupling not required for triggering exocytosis. PUBMED:9830014 EPMC:9830014
Wei W, Hackmann K, Xu H, Germino G, Qian F; , J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21729-21737.: Characterization of cis-autoproteolysis of polycystin-1, the product of human polycystic kidney disease 1 gene. PUBMED:17525154 EPMC:17525154
Krasnoperov V, Lu Y, Buryanovsky L, Neubert TA, Ichtchenko K, Petrenko AG;, J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46518-46526.: Post-translational proteolytic processing of the calcium-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin (CIRL), a natural chimera of the cell adhesion protein and the G protein-coupled receptor. Role of the G protein-coupled receptor proteolysis site (GPS) motif. PUBMED:12270923 EPMC:12270923
Arac D, Boucard AA, Bolliger MF, Nguyen J, Soltis SM, Sudhof TC, Brunger AT;, EMBO J. 2012;31:1364-1378.: A novel evolutionarily conserved domain of cell-adhesion GPCRs mediates autoproteolysis. PUBMED:22333914 EPMC:22333914
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||7tm_2 GAIN MFS_1_like|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000203
GPS (for GPCR proteolytic site) motif is found in a number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including CIRLs/latrophilins and in other membrane-associated proteins like the sea urchin receptor for egg jelly protein (REJ) [ PUBMED:10469603 ].
For the CIRL-1, CIRL-2, CIRL-3 and CD-97 proteins, it has been shown that they are each made of two non-covalently bound subunits resulting from the endogenous proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein. Because the cysteine-rich domain of CIRL-1 and possibly other receptors is involved in the endogenous proteolytic processing of CIRL-1 and possibly other receptors, it has been named GPS for GPCR proteolytic site. As the amino acids surrounding the putative cleavage site are the most conserved residues in the GPS domain, it has been suggested that all proteins containing it may be cleaved at this position [ PUBMED:10026162 , PUBMED:9830014 , PUBMED:10469603 ].
GPS motifs are about 50 residues long and contain either 2 or 4 cysteine residues that are likely to form disulphide bridges. Based on conservation of these cysteines the following pairing can be predicted.
+-----------------+ | | +-----------------+---------------+ | | | | | XXXCXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXCXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXCXCXXLTXXXXXXX ^ cleavage site
The GPS motif is an integral part of a much larger (320-residue approximately) domain that has been termed GPCR-Autoproteolysis INducing (GAIN) domain. The GAIN domain represents an autoproteolytic fold whose function is likely relevant for GPCR signalling [ PUBMED:22333914 ].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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Members of this clan belong to GAIN domain with an autoproteolytic motif. The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain, includes GPCRs involved in adhesion with a characteristic autoproteolysis motif of HLT/S known as the GPCR proteolysis site (GPS). GPS is also shared by polycystic kidney disease (PKD) proteins. GAIN has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for autoproteolysis .
The clan contains the following 6 members:DUF1191 GAIN GPS Nucleoporin2 UPF0560 ZU5
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Previous IDs:||GPS; GAIN; GAIN-GPS;|
|Number in seed:||295|
|Number in full:||17360|
|Average length of the domain:||44.2 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||39 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||3.39 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||24|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the GPS domain has been found. There are 8 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.