Please note: this site relies heavily on the use of javascript. Without a javascript-enabled browser, this site will not function correctly. Please enable javascript and reload the page, or switch to a different browser.
64  structures 1204  species 0  interactions 15238  sequences 230  architectures

Family: START (PF01852)

Summary: START domain

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "StAR-related transfer domain". More...

StAR-related transfer domain Edit Wikipedia article

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

START domain Provide feedback

No Pfam abstract.

Literature references

  1. Ponting CP, Aravind L; , Trends Biochem Sci 1999;24:130-132.: START: a lipid-binding domain in StAR, HD-ZIP and signalling proteins. PUBMED:10322415 EPMC:10322415


Internal database links

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR002913

START (StAR-related lipid-transfer) is a lipid-binding domain in StAR, HD-ZIP and signalling proteins [ PUBMED:10322415 ]. StAR (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein) is a mitochondrial protein that is synthesised in response to luteinising hormone stimulation [ PUBMED:7961770 ]. Expression of the protein in the absence of hormone stimulation is sufficient to induce steroid production, suggesting that this protein is required in the acute regulation of steroidogenesis. Representatives of the START domain family have been shown to bind different ligands such as sterols (StAR protein) and phosphatidylcholine (PC-TP). Ligand binding by the START domain can also regulate the activities of other domains that co-occur with the START domain in multidomain proteins such as Rho-gap, the homeodomain, and the thioesterase domain [ PUBMED:10322415 , PUBMED:11276083 ].

The crystal structure of START domain of human MLN64 shows an alpha/beta fold built around an U-shaped incomplete beta-barrel. Most importantly, the interior of the protein encompasses a 26 x 12 x 11 Angstroms hydrophobic tunnel that is apparently large enough to bind a single cholesterol molecule [ PUBMED:10802740 ]. The START domain structure revealed an unexpected similarity to that of the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and to bacterial polyketide cyclases/aromatases [ PUBMED:11276083 , PUBMED:10802740 ].

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

Loading domain graphics...

Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan Bet_v_1_like (CL0209), which has the following description:

The Pfam:PF00407 entry is composed of sequences related to the major Birch (Betula verrucose) pollen antigen Bet v 1. This allergen is known to cause hayfever, dermatitis, asthma and occasionally anaphylactic shock. The other families in this clan share the same structure as Bet v 1, which is composed of antiparallel beta sheets and alpha helices. There is a cavity between the beta sheet and a long C terminal helix. The cavity appears to play roles in the binding of lipid molecules [1][2][3] which seems a common feature of the families in this clan.

The clan contains the following 24 members:

AHSA1 Aromatic_hydrox Bet_v_1 COXG DAPG_hydrolase DUF1857 DUF2505 DUF3074 DUF3211 DUF3284 Fungal_KA1 IP_trans KshA_C LigXa_C Lipoprotein_18 PaO Polyketide_cyc Polyketide_cyc2 PRELI Ring_hydroxyl_A START START_2 VanA_C VASt

Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(16)
Full
(15238)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(28157)
RP15
(2264)
RP35
(6781)
RP55
(12873)
RP75
(17314)
Jalview View  View  View  View  View  View  View 
HTML View             
PP/heatmap 1            

1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(16)
Full
(15238)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(28157)
RP15
(2264)
RP35
(6781)
RP55
(12873)
RP75
(17314)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
Download/view:

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(16)
Full
(15238)
Representative proteomes UniProt
(28157)
RP15
(2264)
RP35
(6781)
RP55
(12873)
RP75
(17314)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Alignment kindly provided by SMART
Previous IDs: none
Type: Domain
Sequence Ontology: SO:0000417
Author: SMART
Number in seed: 16
Number in full: 15238
Average length of the domain: 188.20 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 16 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 29.55 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 20.6 20.6
Trusted cut-off 20.6 20.6
Noise cut-off 20.5 20.5
Model length: 209
Family (HMM) version: 21
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

Sunburst controls

Hide

Weight segments by...


Change the size of the sunburst

Small
Large

Colour assignments

Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence

Selections

Align selected sequences to HMM

Generate a FASTA-format file

Clear selection

This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

Loading sunburst data...

Tree controls

Hide

The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...

Loading...

Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.

Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the START domain has been found. There are 64 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

Loading structure mapping...

AlphaFold Structure Predictions

The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.

Protein Predicted structure External Information
A0A0G2JWY8 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0G2KB11 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0G2KUS3 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0N7KPL6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0R0HYQ3 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0R0IJ60 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0R0IJ93 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0R0IXB3 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0R0J9I9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0R0KKG1 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0R0LJE6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A0R4IJS1 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6DXQ9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6EEL0 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6F3P8 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6GLI9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6GTG0 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6GXW9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6H804 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6HXN6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6HXN6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6I980 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6I980 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6J125 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6JC47 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6JEY8 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6JKQ5 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6KG86 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6KSU6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6KSU6 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6KSV2 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6KX67 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6MWG4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6N9M4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6NSI3 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6PLQ4 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1D6QV93 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1P8BCK8 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1X7YHD9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A1X7YHD9 View 3D Structure Click here
A0A2R8Q7A5 View 3D Structure Click here
A3BPF2 View 3D Structure Click here
A4HUZ7 View 3D Structure Click here
A4I4Z0 View 3D Structure Click here
A5PMB7 View 3D Structure Click here
A8JR05 View 3D Structure Click here
B0S5B4 View 3D Structure Click here
B4G219 View 3D Structure Click here
B9DGX7 View 3D Structure Click here
B9UY99 View 3D Structure Click here
C0P834 View 3D Structure Click here
C0PDK7 View 3D Structure Click here
C4IYK7 View 3D Structure Click here
C4J4C3 View 3D Structure Click here
C7J481 View 3D Structure Click here
D3Z9I9 View 3D Structure Click here
D3ZN38 View 3D Structure Click here
D3ZU63 View 3D Structure Click here
D4A5B9 View 3D Structure Click here
D4ACN6 View 3D Structure Click here
E7F8B8 View 3D Structure Click here
E7F9N5 View 3D Structure Click here
E7FBY0 View 3D Structure Click here
E7FCU2 View 3D Structure Click here
E9QBW9 View 3D Structure Click here
E9QJN3 View 3D Structure Click here
F1LX28 View 3D Structure Click here
F1Q7X0 View 3D Structure Click here
F1QCX7 View 3D Structure Click here
F1QWK5 View 3D Structure Click here
F4IHT0 View 3D Structure Click here
F4JSE7 View 3D Structure Click here
F4JYC1 View 3D Structure Click here
F4JYV3 View 3D Structure Click here
F6NZ18 View 3D Structure Click here
G2J5R8 View 3D Structure Click here
G2J5S6 View 3D Structure Click here
G2J5S7 View 3D Structure Click here
G2J5S8 View 3D Structure Click here
G2J5S9 View 3D Structure Click here
I1J4R3 View 3D Structure Click here
I1JAP9 View 3D Structure Click here
I1JAV7 View 3D Structure Click here
I1JYI4 View 3D Structure Click here
I1K476 View 3D Structure Click here
I1K583 View 3D Structure Click here
I1K9E8 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KB13 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KFB6 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KG19 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KGJ9 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KGK2 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KGN5 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KQN6 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KSN0 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KV32 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KV67 View 3D Structure Click here
I1KVV8 View 3D Structure Click here
I1L0G6 View 3D Structure Click here
I1L3Y5 View 3D Structure Click here
I1L6R2 View 3D Structure Click here
I1LBX1 View 3D Structure Click here
I1LD05 View 3D Structure Click here
I1LFW1 View 3D Structure Click here
I1LL54 View 3D Structure Click here
I1LR38 View 3D Structure Click here
I1LTK2 View 3D Structure Click here
I1LZM9 View 3D Structure Click here
I1M436 View 3D Structure Click here
I1M5J0 View 3D Structure Click here
I1MCR0 View 3D Structure Click here
I1MG30 View 3D Structure Click here
I1MG59 View 3D Structure Click here
I1MQL8 View 3D Structure Click here
I1MQU6 View 3D Structure Click here
I1MTY2 View 3D Structure Click here
I1NGA8 View 3D Structure Click here
I1NGR2 View 3D Structure Click here
I1NII1 View 3D Structure Click here
K7KIX6 View 3D Structure Click here
K7KPC7 View 3D Structure Click here
K7KPC7 View 3D Structure Click here
K7L099 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LBF5 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LBG8 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LDX2 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LF40 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LF69 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LL44 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LMB0 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LTZ8 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LVW4 View 3D Structure Click here
K7LW77 View 3D Structure Click here
K7M2H9 View 3D Structure Click here
K7M363 View 3D Structure Click here
K7MCN9 View 3D Structure Click here
K7MD18 View 3D Structure Click here
K7MHJ6 View 3D Structure Click here
K7MIK7 View 3D Structure Click here
K7MU39 View 3D Structure Click here
O04291 View 3D Structure Click here
O04292 View 3D Structure Click here
O17883 View 3D Structure Click here
O18155 View 3D Structure Click here
P46607 View 3D Structure Click here
P49675 View 3D Structure Click here
P51557 View 3D Structure Click here
P53808 View 3D Structure Click here
P53809 View 3D Structure Click here
P59095 View 3D Structure Click here
P59096 View 3D Structure Click here
P97826 View 3D Structure Click here
Q0D845 View 3D Structure Click here
Q0DF38 View 3D Structure Click here
Q0J9X2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q0WV12 View 3D Structure Click here
Q147T1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q14849 View 3D Structure Click here
Q17764 View 3D Structure Click here
Q19819 View 3D Structure Click here
Q20440 View 3D Structure Click here
Q21130 View 3D Structure Click here
Q2QM96 View 3D Structure Click here
Q336P2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q39123 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4CW54 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4CWL9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4CXD2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4D3D2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4DXJ8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4E0R2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4E3N4 View 3D Structure Click here
Q4E634 View 3D Structure Click here
Q53NA1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q54N86 View 3D Structure Click here
Q54XR5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q566U7 View 3D Structure Click here
Q5HZ48 View 3D Structure Click here
Q5JMF3 View 3D Structure Click here
Q5M7Y0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q5QMZ9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q5U2T5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q5ZAY0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q61542 View 3D Structure Click here
Q63744 View 3D Structure Click here
Q69T58 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6AST1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6AYN5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6EPF0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6K8I5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6P0C0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6TAQ6 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6YU77 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6Z9J1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q6ZAR0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7Y0V7 View 3D Structure Click here
Q7Y0V9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q84JD1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8K031 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8L7H4 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8R1R3 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8RWU4 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8VHQ9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8VZF6 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8WXI4 View 3D Structure Click here
Q8WYK0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q923Q2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q92502 View 3D Structure Click here
Q93569 View 3D Structure Click here
Q93V99 View 3D Structure Click here
Q93YV2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q944M2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q94C37 View 3D Structure Click here
Q96DR4 View 3D Structure Click here
Q96QB1 View 3D Structure Click here
Q99JV5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q99NB7 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9AV49 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9DBK0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9DFS4 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9DG10 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9EPQ7 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9EQG9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9FFI0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9FJS2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9FVI6 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9FX31 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9JMD3 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9LMT8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9LS84 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9LTK3 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9M0J8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9M2E8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9M9P4 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9NQZ5 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9NSY2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9R0Z9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9S9Z0 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9SE43 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9UKL6 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9VJZ2 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9W145 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9W145 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9XIR9 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9Y128 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9Y365 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9Y3M8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9Y5P4 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9ZU11 View 3D Structure Click here
Q9ZV65 View 3D Structure Click here