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0  structures 1068  species 0  interactions 1578  sequences 5  architectures

Family: Glt_symporter (PF03616)

Summary: Sodium/glutamate symporter

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Glutamate permease". More...

Glutamate permease Edit Wikipedia article

Pfam clanCL0064

The sodium/glutamate symporter, also known as glutamate permease, is a transmembrane protein family found in bacteria and archaea. These proteins are symporters that are responsible for the sodium-dependent uptake of extracellular glutamate into the cell. They are integral membrane proteins located in the bacterial inner membrane.[1] The best-studied member of the family is GltS from Escherichia coli. GltS contains ten transmembrane helices arranged in two antiparallel 5-helix domains and functions as a homodimer.[1][2][3] Substrates for GltS include L- and D-glutamate, as well as toxic analogs α-methylglutamate, and homocysteate.[1] In studies of E. coli growth, bacteria without GltS were unable to grow in a medium where glutamate is the only source of carbon.[4]

The family is evolutionarily distant from other glutamate transporters. Phylogenetic analyses of GltS genes suggest that their presence in cyanobacteria can be attributed to at least two horizontal gene transfer events.[5]


  1. ^ a b c Szvetnik A, Gál J, Kálmán M (October 2007). "Membrane topology of the GltS Na+/glutamate permease of Escherichia coli". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 275 (1): 71–9. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00863.x. PMID 17662058.
  2. ^ MoÅ›cicka KB, Krupnik T, Boekema EJ, Lolkema JS (July 2009). "Projection structure by single-particle electron microscopy of secondary transport proteins GltT, CitS, and GltS" (PDF). Biochemistry. 48 (28): 6618–23. doi:10.1021/bi900838d. PMID 19518127.
  3. ^ Dobrowolski A, Lolkema JS (July 2010). "Evolution of antiparallel two-domain membrane proteins. Swapping domains in the glutamate transporter GltS" (PDF). Biochemistry. 49 (29): 5972–4. doi:10.1021/bi100918j. PMID 20557112.
  4. ^ Kalman, Miklos; Gentry, DanielR.; Cashel, Michael (March 1991). "Characterization of the Escherichia coli K12 gltS glutamate permease gene". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 225 (3): 379–86. doi:10.1007/BF00261677. PMID 2017136.
  5. ^ Flores E, Munro-Pastor AM, Meeks JC (2008). "Gene Transfer to Cyanobacteria in the Laboratory and in Nature". In Herrero A, Flores E (eds.). The cyanobacteria : molecular biology, genomics, and evolution. Norfolk, UK: Caister Academic Press. ISBN 9781904455158.
This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR004445

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

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Sodium/glutamate symporter Provide feedback

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External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR004445

This entry represents a membrane protein, GltS, which is a glutamate carrier of an Na+-dependent, binding protein-independent, and glutamate-specific transport system [ PUBMED:2537813 , PUBMED:2254324 ].

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan CPA_AT (CL0064), which has the following description:

This Clan contains transporter proteins that belong to the CPA superfamily and AT superfamily according to TCDB [1].

The clan contains the following 13 members:

Asp-Al_Ex Cons_hypoth698 DUF819 Glt_symporter KdgT Lys_export Mem_trans Na_H_antiport_1 Na_H_Exchanger OAD_beta SBF SBF_like Sbt_1


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Seed source: TIGRFAMs
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: TIGRFAMs, Griffiths-Jones SR
Number in seed: 8
Number in full: 1578
Average length of the domain: 340.30 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 29 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 86.72 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 21.2 21.2
Trusted cut-off 21.2 21.2
Noise cut-off 21.1 21.1
Model length: 368
Family (HMM) version: 16
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Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
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AlphaFold Structure Predictions

The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.

Protein Predicted structure External Information
P0AER8 View 3D Structure Click here
Q2FVS0 View 3D Structure Click here

trRosetta Structure

The structural model below was generated by the Baker group with the trRosetta software using the Pfam UniProt multiple sequence alignment.

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Improved protein structure prediction using predicted inter-residue orientations. Jianyi Yang, Ivan Anishchenko, Hahnbeom Park, Zhenling Peng, Sergey Ovchinnikov, David Baker Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jan 2020, 117 (3) 1496-1503; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1914677117;