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2  structures 140  species 0  interactions 3884  sequences 30  architectures

Family: TCP (PF03634)

Summary: TCP family transcription factor

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "TCP protein domain". More...

TCP protein domain Edit Wikipedia article

Symbol TCP
Pfam PF03634
InterPro IPR005333
SCOP 1grl

In molecular biology, the protein domain TCP is actually a family of transcription factors named after: teosinte branched 1 (tb1, Zea mays (Maize)),[1] cycloidea (cyc) (Antirrhinum majus) (Garden snapdragon)[2] and PCF in rice (Oryza sativa).[3]


Members of the TCP protein domain family appear to be involved in cell proliferation. It may also have a role in signalling pathways since it has three phosphorylation sites. The TCP domain is necessary for specific binding to promoter elements of the Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene and also in DNA binding.[2]


This family of transcription factors are exclusive to vascular plants. They can be divided into two groups, TCP-C and TCP-P, that appear to have separated following an early gene duplication event.[4] This duplication event may have led to functional divergence and it has been proposed that the TCP-P subfamily are transcriptional repressors, while the TPC-C subfamily are transcription activators.[5]


The TCP proteins code for structurally related proteins implicated in the evolution of key morphological traits.[2] However, the biochemical function of CYC and TB1 proteins remains to be demonstrated. One of the conserved regions is predicted to form a non-canonical basic-Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) structure. This domain is also found in two rice DNA-binding proteins, PCF1 and PCF2, where it has been shown to be involved in DNA-binding and dimerization.


  1. ^ Finlayson SA (May 2007). "Arabidopsis Teosinte Branched1-like 1 regulates axillary bud outgrowth and is homologous to monocot Teosinte Branched1". Plant Cell Physiol. 48 (5): 667–77. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcm044. PMID 17452340. 
  2. ^ a b c Cubas P, Lauter N, Doebley J, Coen E (April 1999). "The TCP domain: a motif found in proteins regulating plant growth and development". Plant J. 18 (2): 215–22. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.1999.00444.x. PMID 10363373. 
  3. ^ Kosugi S, Ohashi Y (May 2002). "DNA binding and dimerization specificity and potential targets for the TCP protein family". Plant J. 30 (3): 337–48. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2002.01294.x. PMID 12000681. 
  4. ^ Navaud O, Dabos P, Carnus E, Tremousaygue D, Hervé C (July 2007). "TCP transcription factors predate the emergence of land plants". J. Mol. Evol. 65 (1): 23–33. doi:10.1007/s00239-006-0174-z. PMID 17568984. 
  5. ^ Li C, Potuschak T, Colón-Carmona A, Gutiérrez RA, Doerner P (September 2005). "Arabidopsis TCP20 links regulation of growth and cell division control pathways". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (36): 12978–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.0504039102. PMC 1200278Freely accessible. PMID 16123132. 

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR005333

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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

TCP family transcription factor Provide feedback

This is a family of TCP plant transcription factors. TCP proteins were named after the first characterised members (TB1, CYC and PCFs) and they are involved in multiple developmental control pathways [1]. This region contains a DNA binding basic-Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLP) structure [1].

Literature references

  1. Cubas P, Lauter N, Doebley J, Coen E; , Plant J 1999;18:215-222.: The TCP domain: a motif found in proteins regulating plant growth and development. PUBMED:10363373 EPMC:10363373

  2. Koyama T, Furutani M, Tasaka M, Ohme-Takagi M; , Plant Cell. 2007;19:473-484.: TCP transcription factors control the morphology of shoot lateral organs via negative regulation of the expression of boundary-specific genes in Arabidopsis. PUBMED:17307931 EPMC:17307931

  3. Navaud O, Dabos P, Carnus E, Tremousaygue D, Herve C; , J Mol Evol. 2007;65:23-33.: TCP Transcription Factors Predate the Emergence of Land Plants. PUBMED:17568984 EPMC:17568984

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR017887

The TCP domain has been named after its first characterised members (TB1, CYC and PCFs). So far, members of the TCP family have only been found in plants and function in processes related to cell proliferation. The TCP domain is probably involved in DNA-binding and protein-protein interactions [ PUBMED:10363373 ].

The TCP domain is predicted to form a non-canonical basic-Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH). The main conserved features of the TCP domain are: two short stretches of residues in the basic region, hydrophobic residues along the apolar face of both alpha-helices, a tryptophan in helix II, and a helix-breaking glycine in the loop between the helices. However the residues in the loop and the hydrophilic residues of the helices are not as well conserved. TCP domains form two subfamilies: one closely related to CYC and TB1, and another more related to the PCFs. The basic region of the CYC/TB1 subfamily contains a putative bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) while the basic region of the PCF subfamily contains only a portion of a bipartite NLS [ PUBMED:10363373 ].

Domain organisation

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We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

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HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...


This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

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Seed source: Pfam-B_1979 (release 7.0)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Bateman A
Number in seed: 45
Number in full: 3884
Average length of the domain: 152.80 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 28 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 45.07 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 23.0 17.0
Trusted cut-off 23.0 17.2
Noise cut-off 22.9 16.9
Model length: 154
Family (HMM) version: 15
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Species distribution

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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the TCP domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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