Summary: DnaB-like helicase C terminal domain
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DnaB helicase Edit Wikipedia article
|Replicative DNA helicase|
|DnaB-like helicase N terminal domain|
|SCOP2||1jwe / SCOPe / SUPFAM|
|DnaB-like helicase C terminal domain|
DnaB helicase is an enzyme in bacteria which opens the replication fork during DNA replication. Although the mechanism by which DnaB both couples ATP hydrolysis to translocation along DNA and denatures the duplex is unknown, a change in the quaternary structure of the protein involving dimerisation of the N-terminal domain has been observed and may occur during the enzymatic cycle. Initially when DnaB binds to dnaA, it is associated with dnaC, a negative regulator. After DnaC dissociates, DnaB binds dnaG.
In eukaryotes, helicase function is provided by the MCM (Minichromosome maintenance) complex.
The DnaB helicase is the product of the dnaB gene. The helicase enzyme that is produced is a hexamer in E. coli, as well as in many other bacteria. The energy for DnaB activity is provided by NTP hydrolysis. Mechanical energy moves the DnaB into the replication fork, physically splitting it in half.
E. coli dnaB
In E. coli, dnaB is a hexameric protein of six 471-residue subunits, which form a ring-shaped structure with threefold symmetry. During DNA replication, the lagging strand of DNA binds in the central channel of dnaB, and the second DNA strand is excluded. The binding of dNTPs causes a conformational change which allows the dnaB to translocate along the DNA, thus mechanically forcing the separation of the DNA strands.
Mechanism of initiation of replication
This article may be too technical for most readers to understand.(January 2018)
At least 10 different enzymes or proteins participate in the initiation phase of replication. They open the DNA helix at the origin and establish a prepriming complex for subsequent reactions. The crucial component in the initiation process is the DnaA protein, a member of the AAA+ ATPase protein family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities). Many AAA+ ATPases, including DnaA, form oligomers and hydrolyze ATP relatively slowly. This ATP hydrolysis acts as a switch mediating interconversion of the protein between two states. In the case of DnaA, the ATP-bound form is active and the ADP-bound form is inactive.
Eight DnaA protein molecules, all in the ATP-bound state, assemble to form a helical complex encompassing the R and I sites in oriC. DnaA has a higher affinity for the R sites than I sites, and binds R sites equally well in its ATP or ADP-bound form. The I sites, which bind only the ATP-bound DnaA, allow discrimination between the active and inactive forms of DnaA. The tight right-handed wrapping of the DNA around this complex introduces an effective positive supercoil. The associated strain in the nearby DNA leads to denaturation in the A:T-rich 'DUE' (DNA Unwinding Element) region. The complex formed at the replication origin also includes several DNA-binding proteins- Hu, IHF and FIS that facilitate DNA bending.
The DnaC protein, another AAA+ ATPase, then loads the DnaB protein onto the separated DNA strands in the denatured region. A hexamer of DnaC, each subunit bound to ATP, forms a tight complex with the hexameric, ring-shaped DnaB helicase. This DnaC-DnaB interaction opens the DnaB ring, the process being aided by a further interaction between DnaB and DnaA. Two of the ring-shaped DnaB hexamers are loaded in the DUE, one onto each DNA strand. The ATP bound to DnaC is hydrolyzed, releasing the DnaC and leaving the DnaB bound to the DNA.
Loading of the DnaB helicase is the key step in replication initiation. As a replicative helicase, DnaB migrates along the single-stranded DNA in the 5'â†’3' direction, unwinding the DNA as it travels. The DnaB helicases loaded onto the two DNA strands thus travel in opposite directions, creating two potential replication forks. All other proteins at the replication fork are linked directly or indirectly to DnaB.
- Fass D, Bogden CE, Berger JM (June 1999). "Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the DnaB hexameric helicase". Structure. 7 (6): 691â€“8. doi:10.1016/s0969-2126(99)80090-2. PMIDÂ 10404598.
- Bocanegra R, Ismael Plaza GA, Pulido CR, Ibarra B (2021). "DNA replication machinery: Insights from in vitro single-molecule approaches". Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. 19: 2057â€“2069. doi:10.1016/j.csbj.2021.04.013. PMCÂ 8085672. PMIDÂ 33995902.
- Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry
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DnaB-like helicase C terminal domain Provide feedback
The hexameric helicase DnaB unwinds the DNA duplex at the Escherichia coli chromosome replication fork. Although the mechanism by which DnaB both couples ATP hydrolysis to translocation along DNA and denatures the duplex is unknown, a change in the quaternary structure of the protein involving dimerisation of the N-terminal domain has been observed and may occur during the enzymatic cycle. This C-terminal domain contains an ATP-binding site and is therefore probably the site of ATP hydrolysis.
Internal database links
|SCOOP:||AAA AAA_11 AAA_14 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_22 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_29 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_33 AAA_5 ABC_tran ATPase ATPase_2 CbiA CobU divDNAB DUF2075 GvpD_P-loop Intein_splicing IstB_IS21 KdpD LAGLIDADG_3 MEDS Mg_chelatase NACHT NB-ARC ParA PAXNEB Rad51 RecA ResIII RuvB_N SRP54 T2SSE TIP49 TniB Zeta_toxin Zot|
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||TniB TIP49 ATPase AAA_25 divDNAB|
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR007694
The hexameric helicase DnaB unwinds the DNA duplex at the Escherichia coli chromosome replication fork. Although the mechanism by which DnaB both couples ATP hydrolysis to translocation along DNA and denatures the duplex is unknown, a change in the quaternary structure of the protein involving dimerization of the N-terminal domain has been observed and may occur during the enzymatic cycle. This C-terminal domain contains an ATP-binding site and is therefore probably the site of ATP hydrolysis.
DnaB helicase C-terminal domain. The hexameric helicase DnaB unwinds the DNA duplex at the chromosome replication fork. Although the mechanism by which DnaB both couples ATP hydrolysis to translocation along DNA and denatures the duplex is unknown, a change in the quaternary structure of the protein involving dimerization of the N-terminal domain has been observed and may occur during the enzymatic cycle. This C-terminal domain contains an ATP-binding site and is therefore probably the site of ATP hydrolysis [ PUBMED:10049800 ],[ PUBMED:10645945 ],[ PUBMED:1569588 ].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||ATP binding (GO:0005524)|
|DNA helicase activity (GO:0003678)|
|Biological process||DNA replication (GO:0006260)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes .
The clan contains the following 245 members:6PF2K AAA AAA-ATPase_like AAA_10 AAA_11 AAA_12 AAA_13 AAA_14 AAA_15 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_2 AAA_21 AAA_22 AAA_23 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_26 AAA_27 AAA_28 AAA_29 AAA_3 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_32 AAA_33 AAA_34 AAA_35 AAA_5 AAA_6 AAA_7 AAA_8 AAA_9 AAA_PrkA ABC_ATPase ABC_tran ABC_tran_Xtn Adeno_IVa2 Adenylsucc_synt ADK AFG1_ATPase AIG1 APS_kinase Arf ArsA_ATPase ATP-synt_ab ATP_bind_1 ATP_bind_2 ATPase ATPase_2 Bac_DnaA BCA_ABC_TP_C Beta-Casp bpMoxR BrxC_BrxD BrxL_ATPase Cas_Csn2 Cas_St_Csn2 CbiA CBP_BcsQ CDC73_C CENP-M CFTR_R CLP1_P CMS1 CoaE CobA_CobO_BtuR CobU cobW CPT CSM2 CTP_synth_N Cytidylate_kin Cytidylate_kin2 DAP3 DEAD DEAD_2 divDNAB DLIC DNA_pack_C DNA_pack_N DNA_pol3_delta DNA_pol3_delta2 DnaB_C dNK DO-GTPase1 DO-GTPase2 DUF1611 DUF2075 DUF2326 DUF2478 DUF257 DUF2813 DUF3584 DUF463 DUF4914 DUF5906 DUF6079 DUF815 DUF835 DUF87 DUF927 Dynamin_N Dynein_heavy Elong_Iki1 ELP6 ERCC3_RAD25_C Exonuc_V_gamma FeoB_N Fer4_NifH Flavi_DEAD FTHFS FtsK_SpoIIIE G-alpha Gal-3-0_sulfotr GBP GBP_C GpA_ATPase GpA_nuclease GTP_EFTU Gtr1_RagA Guanylate_kin GvpD_P-loop HDA2-3 Helicase_C Helicase_C_2 Helicase_C_4 Helicase_RecD HerA_C Herpes_Helicase Herpes_ori_bp Herpes_TK HydF_dimer HydF_tetramer Hydin_ADK IIGP IPPT IPT iSTAND IstB_IS21 KAP_NTPase KdpD Kinase-PPPase Kinesin KTI12 LAP1_C LpxK MCM MeaB MEDS Mg_chelatase Microtub_bd MipZ MMR_HSR1 MMR_HSR1_C MobB MukB Mur_ligase_M MutS_V Myosin_head NACHT NAT_N NB-ARC NOG1 NTPase_1 NTPase_P4 ORC3_N P-loop_TraG ParA Parvo_NS1 PAXNEB PduV-EutP PhoH PIF1 Ploopntkinase1 Ploopntkinase2 Ploopntkinase3 Podovirus_Gp16 Polyoma_lg_T_C Pox_A32 PPK2 PPV_E1_C PRK PSY3 Rad17 Rad51 Ras RecA ResIII RHD3_GTPase RhoGAP_pG1_pG2 RHSP RNA12 RNA_helicase Roc RsgA_GTPase RuvB_N SbcC_Walker_B SecA_DEAD Senescence Septin Sigma54_activ_2 Sigma54_activat SKI SMC_N SNF2-rel_dom SpoIVA_ATPase Spore_III_AA SRP54 SRPRB SulA Sulfotransfer_1 Sulfotransfer_2 Sulfotransfer_3 Sulfotransfer_4 Sulfotransfer_5 Sulphotransf SWI2_SNF2 T2SSE T4SS-DNA_transf TerL_ATPase Terminase_3 Terminase_6N Thymidylate_kin TIP49 TK TmcA_N TniB Torsin TraG-D_C tRNA_lig_kinase TrwB_AAD_bind TsaE UvrB UvrD-helicase UvrD_C UvrD_C_2 Viral_helicase1 VirC1 VirE YqeC Zeta_toxin Zot
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Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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|Seed source:||Pfam-B_1000 (release 2.1)|
|Author:||Bateman A , Eberhardt R|
|Number in seed:||427|
|Number in full:||11700|
|Average length of the domain:||254.50 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||38 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||54.14 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null --hand HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||18|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the DnaB_C domain has been found. There are 182 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.