Summary: delta endotoxin
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Delta endotoxin Edit Wikipedia article
|delta endotoxin, N-terminal domain|
|SCOPe||1dlc / SUPFAM|
|delta endotoxin, middle domain|
|SCOPe||1dlc / SUPFAM|
|delta endotoxin, middle domain, Cry2A and Cry18|
insecticidal crystal protein cry2aa
|SCOPe||1i5p / SUPFAM|
|delta endotoxin, C-terminal|
|SCOPe||1dlc / SUPFAM|
|Cytolytic Delta-endotoxin Cyt1/2|
|SCOPe||1cby / SUPFAM|
Delta endotoxins (Î´-endotoxins) are pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis species of bacteria. They are useful for their insecticidal action and are the primary toxin produced by Bt corn. During spore formation the bacteria produce crystals of such proteins (hence the name Cry toxins) that are also known as parasporal bodies, next to the endospores; as a result some members are known as a parasporin. The Cyt (cytolytic) toxin group is a group of delta-endotoxins different from the Cry group.
Mechanism of action
When an insect ingests these proteins, they are activated by proteolytic cleavage. The N-terminus is cleaved in all of the proteins and a C-terminal extension is cleaved in some members. Once activated, the endotoxin binds to the gut epithelium and causes cell lysis by the formation of cation-selective channels, which leads to death.
The activated region of the delta toxin is composed of three distinct structural domains: an N-terminal helical bundle domain (InterPro: IPR005639) involved in membrane insertion and pore formation; a beta-sheet central domain involved in receptor binding; and a C-terminal beta-sandwich domain (InterPro: IPR005638) that interacts with the N-terminal domain to form a channel.
B. thuringiensis encodes many proteins of the delta endotoxin family (InterPro: IPR038979), with some strains encoding multiple types simultaneously. A gene mostly found on plasmids, delta-entotoxins sometimes show up in genomes of other species, albeit at a lower proportion than those found in B. Thuringiensis. The gene names looks like
Cry3Bb, which in this case indicates a Cry toxin of superfamily 3 family B subfamily b.
Cry proteins that are interesting to cancer research are listed under a parasporin (PS) nomenclature in addition to the Cry nomenclature. They do not kill insects, but instead kill leukemia cells. The Cyt toxins tend to form their own group distinct from Cry toxins. Not all Cry -- crystal-form -- toxins directly share a common root. Examples of non-three-domain toxins that nevertheless have a Cry name include Cry34/35Ab1 and related beta-sandwich binary (Bin-like) toxins, Cry6Aa, and many beta-sandwich parasporins.
Specific delta-endotoxins that has been used for genetic engineering include Cry3Bb1 found in MON 863 and Cry1Ab found in MON 810, both of which are corn species. Cry3Bb1 is particularly useful because it kills the coleopteran insects such as the corn rootworm, an activity not seen in other Cry proteins. Other common toxins include Cry2Ab and Cry1F in cotton and corn. In addition, Cry1Ac is effective as a vaccine adjuvant in humans.
Some insects populations have started to develop resistance towards delta endotoxin, with five resistant species found as of 2013. Plants with two kinds of delta endotoxins tend to make resistance happen slower, as the insects have to evolve to overcome both toxins at once. Planting non-Bt plants with the resistant plants will reduce the selection pressure for developing the toxin. Finally, two-toxin plants should not be planted with one-toxin plants, as one-toxin plants act as a stepping stone for adaption in this case.
- Galitsky N, Cody V, Wojtczak A, Ghosh D, Luft JR, Pangborn W, English L (August 2001). "Structure of the insecticidal bacterial delta-endotoxin Cry3Bb1 of Bacillus thuringiensis". Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography. 57 (Pt 8): 1101â€“9. doi:10.1107/S0907444901008186. PMID 11468393.
- Grochulski P, Masson L, Borisova S, Pusztai-Carey M, Schwartz JL, Brousseau R, Cygler M (December 1995). "Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(a) insecticidal toxin: crystal structure and channel formation". Journal of Molecular Biology. 254 (3): 447â€“64. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1995.0630. PMID 7490762.
- "Pesticidal crystal protein (IPR038979)". InterPro. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- Dean DH (1984). "Biochemical genetics of the bacterial insect-control agent Bacillus thuringiensis: basic principles and prospects for genetic engineering" (PDF). Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews. 2: 341â€“63. doi:10.1080/02648725.1984.10647804. PMID 6443645.
- "Species: Pesticidal crystal protein (IPR038979)". InterPro.
- "Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Nomenclature". Bt toxin specificity database. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- Mizuki E, Park YS, Saitoh H, Yamashita S, Akao T, Higuchi K, Ohba M (July 2000). "Parasporin, a human leukemic cell-recognizing parasporal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis". Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 7 (4): 625â€“34. doi:10.1128/CDLI.7.4.625-634.2000. PMC 95925. PMID 10882663.
- Ohba M, Mizuki E, Uemori A (January 2009). "Parasporin, a new anticancer protein group from Bacillus thuringiensis". Anticancer Research. 29 (1): 427â€“33. PMID 19331182.
- "List of Parasporins". Committee of Parasporin Classification and Nomenclature. Accessed Jan 4, 2013
- Crickmore N. "Other Cry Seqences" (PDF). Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- Crickmore N, Zeigler DR, Feitelson J, Schnepf E, Van Rie J, Lereclus D, et al. (September 1998). "Revision of the nomenclature for the Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal crystal proteins" (PDF). Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 62 (3): 807â€“13. PMC 98935. PMID 9729610.
- Kelker MS, Berry C, Evans SL, Pai R, McCaskill DG, Wang NX, et al. (2014-11-12). "Structural and biophysical characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1". PLOS ONE. 9 (11): e112555. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9k2555K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112555. PMC 4229197. PMID 25390338.
- Tabashnik BE, BrÃ©vault T, CarriÃ¨re Y (June 2013). "Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (6): 510â€“21. doi:10.1038/nbt.2597. PMID 23752438.
- Rodriguez-Monroy MA, Moreno-Fierros L (March 2010). "Striking activation of NALT and nasal passages lymphocytes induced by intranasal immunization with Cry1Ac protoxin". Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. 71 (3): 159â€“68. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.2009.02358.x. PMID 20415781.
- Bravo A, Gill SS, SoberÃ³n M (March 2007). "Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control". Toxicon. 49 (4): 423â€“35. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.11.022. PMC 1857359. PMID 17198720.
- Pigott CR, Ellar DJ (June 2007). "Role of receptors in Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxin activity". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 71 (2): 255â€“81. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00034-06. PMC 1899880. PMID 17554045.
- Palma L, MuÃ±oz D, Berry C, Murillo J, Caballero P (December 2014). "Bacillus thuringiensis toxins: an overview of their biocidal activity". Toxins. 6 (12): 3296â€“325. doi:10.3390/toxins6123296. PMC 4280536. PMID 25514092.
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This family contains insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus species of bacteria. During spore formation the bacteria produce crystals of this protein. When an insect ingests these proteins they are activated by proteolytic cleavage. The N terminus is cleaved in all of the proteins and a C terminal extension is cleaved in some members. Once activated the endotoxin binds to the gut epithelium and causes cell lysis leading to death. This activated region of the delta endotoxin is composed of three structural domains. The N-terminal helical domain is involved in membrane insertion and pore formation. The second and third domains are involved in receptor binding.
Schnepf E, Crickmore N, Van Rie J, Lereclus D, Baum J, Feitelson J, Zeigler DR, Dean DH; , Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998;62:775-806.: Bacillus thuringiensis and its pesticidal crystal proteins. PUBMED:9729609 EPMC:9729609
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This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR005638
The crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis have been extensively studied because of their pesticidal properties and their high natural levels of production [ PUBMED:9729610 ]. When an insect ingests these proteins, they are activated by proteolytic cleavage. The N terminus is cleaved in all of the proteins and a C-terminal extension is cleaved in some members. Once activated, the endotoxin binds to the gut epithelium and causes cell lysis by the formation of cation-selective channels, which leads to death. The activated region of the toxin is composed of three distinct structural domains: an N-terminal helical bundle domain ( INTERPRO ) involved in membrane insertion and pore formation; a beta-sheet central domain involved in receptor binding; and a C-terminal beta-sandwich domain ( INTERPRO ) that interacts with the N-terminal domain to form a channel [ PUBMED:7490762 , PUBMED:11468393 ].
This entry represents the conserved C-terminal domain.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||toxin activity (GO:0090729)|
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This large superfamily contains beta sandwich domains with a jelly roll topology. Many of these families are involved in carbohydrate recognition. Despite sharing little sequence similarity they do share a weak sequence motif, with a conserved bulge in the C-terminal beta sheet. The probable role of this bulge is in bending of the beta sheet that contains the bulge. This enables the curvature of the sheet forming the sugar binding site .
The clan contains the following 70 members:7TMR-DISMED2 Agarase_CBM Allantoicase ANAPC10 Arabino_trans_C Bac_rhamnosid_N BcsB BetaGal_dom4_5 BPA_C Calpain_III CBM-like CBM27 CBM32 CBM46 CBM60 CBM65_1 CBM_11 CBM_15 CBM_17_28 CBM_26 CBM_35 CBM_4_9 CBM_6 CE2_N CIA30 Clenterotox Cry1Ac_D5 DUF4465 DUF4627 DUF5000 DUF5010_C DUF5077 DUF5625 DUF642 Endotoxin_C Ephrin_lbd Exop_C F5_F8_type_C FBA FlhE GH101_N GH115_C Glft2_N Glyco_hydro_2_N GxDLY HA70_C Laminin_B Laminin_N Lectin_like Lipl32 Lyase_N Malectin Malectin_like Muskelin_N NPCBM P_proprotein PA-IL PAW PCMD PepX_C PINIT PITH PPC PulA_N1 Sad1_UNC SGBP_B_XBD TcA_TcB_BD Thioredoxin_10 XRCC1_N YpM
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|Seed source:||Arne Eloffson|
|Author:||Bateman A , de Maagd R|
|Number in seed:||80|
|Number in full:||26|
|Average length of the domain:||131.50 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||14 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||12.72 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||16|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Endotoxin_C domain has been found. There are 32 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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