Summary: YT521-B-like domain
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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "YTH protein domain". More...
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YTH protein domain Edit Wikipedia article
|YTH protein domain|
This protein domain, the YTH-domain, is conserved across all eukaryotes and suggests that the conserved C-terminal region plays a critical role in relaying the cytosolic Ca-signals to the nucleus, thereby regulating gene expression.
It has been speculated that in higher eukaryotic YTH-family members may be involved in similar mechanisms to suppress gene regulation during gametogenesis or general silencing. The rat protein YT521-B, SWISSPROT, is a tyrosine-phosphorylated nuclear protein, that interacts with the nuclear transcriptosomal component scaffold attachment factor B, and the 68kDa Src substrate associated during mitosis, Sam68. In vivo splicing assays demonstrated that YT521-B modulates alternative splice site selection in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, it is also thought that YTH domain has a role in RNA binding. 
In plant cells environmental stimuli, which light, pathogens, hormones, and abiotic stresses, elicit changes in the cytosolic calcium levels but little is known of the cytosolic-nuclear Ca-signaling pathway; where gene regulation occurs to respond appropriately to the stress. It has been demonstrated that two novel Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) proteins, (ECT1 and ECT2), specifically associated with Calcineurin B-Like-Interacting Protein Kinase1 (CIPK1), a member of Ser/Thr protein kinases that interact with the calcineurin B-like Ca-binding proteins. These two proteins contain a very similar C-terminal region (180 amino acids in length, 81% similarity), which is required and sufficient for both interaction with CIPK1 and translocation to the nucleus.
- Harigaya Y, Tanaka H, Yamanaka S, Tanaka K, Watanabe Y, Tsutsumi C, Chikashige Y, Hiraoka Y, Yamashita A, Yamamoto M (July 2006). "Selective elimination of messenger RNA prevents an incidence of untimely meiosis". Nature. 442 (7098): 45–50. doi:10.1038/nature04881. PMID 16823445.
- Ok SH, Jeong HJ, Bae JM, Shin JS, Luan S, Kim KN (September 2005). "Novel CIPK1-associated proteins in Arabidopsis contain an evolutionarily conserved C-terminal region that mediates nuclear localization". Plant Physiol. 139 (1): 138–50. doi:10.1104/pp.105.065649. PMC . PMID 16113215.
- Hartmann AM, Nayler O, Schwaiger FW, Obermeier A, Stamm S (November 1999). "The interaction and colocalization of Sam68 with the splicing-associated factor YT521-B in nuclear dots is regulated by the Src family kinase p59(fyn)". Mol. Biol. Cell. 10 (11): 3909–26. doi:10.1091/mbc.10.11.3909. PMC . PMID 10564280.
- Stoilov P, Rafalska I, Stamm S (October 2002). "YTH: a new domain in nuclear proteins". Trends Biochem. Sci. 27 (10): 495–7. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(02)02189-8. PMID 12368078.
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YT521-B-like domain Provide feedback
A protein of the YTH family has been shown to selectively remove transcripts of meiosis-specific genes expressed in mitotic cells . It has been speculated that in higher eukaryotic YTH-family members may be involved in similar mechanisms to suppress gene regulation during gametogenesis or general silencing. The rat protein Q9QY02 YT521-B is a tyrosine-phosphorylated nuclear protein, that interacts with the nuclear transcriptosomal component scaffold attachment factor B, and the 68-kDa Src substrate associated during mitosis, Sam68. In vivo splicing assays demonstrated that YT521-B modulates alternative splice site selection in a concentration-dependent manner . The YTH domain has been identified as part of the PUA superfamily .
Hartmann AM, Nayler O, Schwaiger FW, Obermeier A, Stamm S; , Mol Biol Cell 1999;10:3909-3926.: The interaction and colocalization of Sam68 with the splicing- associated factor YT521-B in nuclear dots is regulated by the Src family kinase p59fyn. PUBMED:10564280 EPMC:10564280
Harigaya Y, Tanaka H, Yamanaka S, Tanaka K, Watanabe Y, Tsutsumi C, Chikashige Y, Hiraoka Y, Yamashita A, Yamamoto M; , Nature. 2006;442:45-50.: Selective elimination of messenger RNA prevents an incidence of untimely meiosis. PUBMED:16823445 EPMC:16823445
Bertonati C, Punta M, Fischer M, Yachdav G, Forouhar F, Zhou W, Kuzin AP, Seetharaman J, Abashidze M, Ramelot TA, Kennedy MA, Cort JR, Belachew A, Hunt JF, Tong L, Montelione GT, Rost B;, Proteins. 2009;75:760-773.: Structural genomics reveals EVE as a new ASCH/PUA-related domain. PUBMED:19191354 EPMC:19191354
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR007275
The YTH (YT521-B homology) domain has been suggested to be an evolutionarily conserved m6A-dependent RNA binding domain [ PUBMED:26318451 ]. Proteins containing this domain includes mammalian YTHD and YTDC proteins, Arabidopsis CPSF30 (At1g30460), budding yeast Pho92 and fission yeast Mmi1.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pho92 is a posttranscriptional regulator that regulates Pho4 mRNA stability by binding to the 3'-UTR in a phosphate-dependent manner. Its YTH domain exhibits RNA-binding activity [ PUBMED:24206186 ]. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Mmi1 has been identified as eliminating meiosis-specific mRNAs [ PUBMED:16823445 ].
Rat YTHDC1 (also known as YT521-B) is an alternative splicing regulator that recognizes and binds N6-methyladenosine (m6A)-containing RNAs. The YTH domain of YT521-B is a RNA-binding domain with a very degenerate sequence-specificity [ PUBMED:25389274 ].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||RNA binding (GO:0003723)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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This clan consists of the RNA binding PUA domain and ASCH domain. It also contains uncharacterised protein families.
The clan contains the following 18 members:ASCH DUF2584 DUF365 DUF3850 EVE LON_substr_bdg Methyltranf_PUA PrgU PUA PUA_2 PUA_3 RE_AspBHI_N SAD_SRA SRA TruB-C_2 TruB_C UPF0113 YTH
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There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
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You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_1386 (release 7.3)|
|Number in seed:||210|
|Number in full:||7575|
|Average length of the domain:||120.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||37 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||22.82 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||17|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
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Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the YTH domain has been found. There are 308 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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