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0  structures 667  species 0  interactions 3924  sequences 60  architectures

Family: CD225 (PF04505)

Summary: Interferon-induced transmembrane protein

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Dispanin". More...

Dispanin Edit Wikipedia article

Symbol CD225
Pfam PF04505
InterPro IPR007593

In molecular biology, the protein family Dispanin is another name for Interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM). This refers to a family of protein domains which have a specific formation, or in other words, topology containing two alpha helices in within the cell membrane which are called two transmembrane proteins. This includes proteins such as CD225 (Cluster of Differentiation 225).[1] The function of this protein family is to inhibit cell invasion of many harmful, pathogenic viruses, such as HIV. Henceforth, they are being intensively studied in the hope of drug discovery. They mediate the immune response by interferons.


Dispanins have a wide range of functions within the organism. It has a role to play in oncogenesis and germ cell development ([1] as well as cell adhesion and cell signalling.[2]

In particular, IFITMs prevent HIV infection by preventing the virus from entering the host cell.[2] It does this by S-palmitoylation, a process where fatty acids are added to an amino acid named cysteine.[3] The process is crucial to the protein's antiviral properties and is of huge interest in research. Through studying Dispanin, it is hoped that its antiviral properties can be exploited, and then distributed in the form of medicines and vaccines.

Additionally, a type of dispanin, IFITM5, is expressed in cells that make bone, named osteoblasts. This is due to the important role dispanins play in strengthening the bone by bone mineralization.[1][2]


This protein family has two transmembrane helices.[1] The precise crystal structure remains to be elucidated.

Sequence Motifs

The sequences across a vast array of organisms, from bacteria to high level eukaryotes all contain the similar sequence motifs; in particular, double cysteine motif in the first transmembrane helix. This motif has recently been shown to undergo post-translational modification through S-palmitoylation. This is important since it increases hydrophobicity, and increases its anti-viral properties.[1]

Evolutionary history

Dispanins in eukaryotes and bacteria have high sequence similarities and share several conserved sequence motifs indication a common evolutionary ancestor.[1]

Human genes

There are a number of human genes which encode for Dispanin proteins, they are as listed below:[1]

  • PRRT2
  • AC023157
  • AL160276
  • AC068580
  • DSPC2
  • TMEM233
  • TMEM90A
  • TMEM90B
  • TMEM91
  • TUSC5


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Sällman Almén M, Bringeland N, Fredriksson R, Schiöth HB (2012). "The dispanins: a novel gene family of ancient origin that contains 14 human members.". PLoS ONE. 7 (2): e31961. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031961. PMC 3282796Freely accessible. PMID 22363774. 
  2. ^ a b c Lu J, Pan Q, Rong L, He W, Liu SL, Liang C (2011). "The IFITM proteins inhibit HIV-1 infection.". J Virol. 85 (5): 2126–37. doi:10.1128/JVI.01531-10. PMC 3067758Freely accessible. PMID 21177806. 
  3. ^ Yount JS, Moltedo B, Yang YY, Charron G, Moran TM, López CB, et al. (2010). "Palmitoylome profiling reveals S-palmitoylation-dependent antiviral activity of IFITM3.". Nat Chem Biol. 6 (8): 610–4. doi:10.1038/nchembio.405. PMC 2928251Freely accessible. PMID 20601941. 

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein Provide feedback

This family includes the human leukocyte antigen CD225, which is an interferon inducible transmembrane protein, and is associated with interferon induced cell growth suppression [1].

Literature references

  1. Deblandre GA, Marinx OP, Evans SS, Majjaj S, Leo O, Caput D, Huez GA, Wathelet MG; , J Biol Chem 1995;270:23860-23866.: Expression cloning of an interferon-inducible 17-kDa membrane protein implicated in the control of cell growth. PUBMED:7559564 EPMC:7559564

  2. Sallman Almen M, Bringeland N, Fredriksson R, Schioth HB;, PLoS One. 2012;7:e31961.: The dispanins: a novel gene family of ancient origin that contains 14 human members. PUBMED:22363774 EPMC:22363774

Internal database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR007593

This family represents a set of transmembrane proteins including various interferon-induced transmembrane proteins, synapse differentiation-inducing gene protein 1, and tumor suppressor candidate 5 and homologues. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (also known as human leukocyte antigen CD225) is associated with interferon induced cell growth suppression [ PUBMED:7559564 ].

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

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We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

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You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

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Seed source: Pfam-B_2070 (release 7.5)
Previous IDs: CD225; Dispanin;
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Mifsud W
Number in seed: 118
Number in full: 3924
Average length of the domain: 66.80 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 30 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 36.65 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 27.1 27.1
Trusted cut-off 27.1 27.1
Noise cut-off 27.0 27.0
Model length: 68
Family (HMM) version: 14
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


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