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5  structures 1309  species 0  interactions 5386  sequences 125  architectures

Family: ELMO_CED12 (PF04727)

Summary: ELMO/CED-12 family

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "ELMO (protein)". More...

ELMO (protein) Edit Wikipedia article

ELMO/CED-12 family
Symbol ELMO_CED12
Pfam PF04727
InterPro IPR006816

ELMO (Engulfment and Cell Motility) is a family of related proteins (~82 kDa) involved in intracellular signalling networks. These proteins have no intrinsic catalytic activity and instead function as adaptors which can regulate the activity of other proteins through their ability to mediate protein-protein interactions.

This family contains three paralogous isoforms:

Structure and function

The ELMO family are evolutionarily conserved orthologs of the C. elegans protein CED-12. All isoforms contain a series of armadillo repeats, which begin at the N-terminus and extend around two thirds of the way along the protein, as well as a C-terminal proline-rich motif and a central PH domain.[1] They function as part of a protein complex with Dock180-related proteins to form a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac (a member of the Rho family of small G proteins).[2] The Dock180-ELMO interaction requires the ELMO PH domain and also involves binding of the ELMO proline-rich motif to the Dock180 SH3 domain.[3]


  1. ^ Lu M, Ravichandran KS (2006). "Dock180-ELMO cooperation in Rac activation". Meth. Enzymol. 406: 388–402. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(06)06028-9. PMID 16472672. 
  2. ^ Gumienny TL, Brugnera E, Tosello-Trampont AC, et al. (2001). "CED-12/ELMO, a novel member of the CrkII/Dock180/Rac pathway, is required for phagocytosis and cell migration". Cell. 107 (1): 27–41. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00520-7. PMID 11595183. 
  3. ^ Komander D, Patel M, Laurin M, et al. (September 2008). "An Alpha-Helical Extension of the ELMO1 Pleckstrin Homology Domain Mediates Direct Interaction to DOCK180 and Is Critical in Rac Signaling". Mol. Biol. Cell. 19 (11): 4837–51. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-04-0345. PMC 2575150Freely accessible. PMID 18768751. 

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This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

ELMO/CED-12 family Provide feedback

This family represents a conserved domain which is found in a number of eukaryotic proteins including CED-12, ELMO I and ELMO II. ELMO1 is a component of signalling pathways that regulate phagocytosis and cell migration and is the mammalian orthologue of the C. elegans gene, ced-12. CED-12 is required for the engulfment of dying cells and cell migration. In mammalian cells, ELMO1 interacts with Dock180 as part of the CrkII/Dock180/Rac pathway responsible for phagocytosis and cell migration. ELMO1 is ubiquitously expressed, although its expression is highest in the spleen, an organ rich in immune cells [1]. ELMO1 has a PH domain and a polyproline sequence motif at its C terminus which are not present in this alignment.

Literature references

  1. Gumienny TL, Brugnera E, Tosello-Trampont AC, Kinchen JM, Haney LB, Nishiwaki K, Walk SF, Nemergut ME, Macara IG, Francis R, Schedl T, Qin Y, Van Aelst L, Hengartner MO, Ravichandran KS; , Cell 2001;107:27-41.: CED-12/ELMO, a novel member of the CrkII/Dock180/Rac pathway, is required for phagocytosis and cell migration. PUBMED:11595183 EPMC:11595183

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR006816

This entry represents the ELMO (EnguLfment and Cell MOtility) domain, which is found in a number of eukaryotic proteins involved in the cytoskeletal rearrangements required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cell motility, including CED-12, ELMO-1 and ELMO-2.

ELMO-1 and ELMO-2 are components of signalling pathways that regulate phagocytosis and cell migration and are mammalian orthologues of the Caenorhabditis elegans gene, ced-12 that is required for the engulfment of dying cells and cell migration. ELMO-1/2 act in association with DOCK1 and CRK. ELMO-1/2 interact with the SH3-domain of DOCK1 via an SH3-binding site to enhance the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity of DOCK1. ELMO-1/2 could be part of a complex with DOCK1 and Rac1 that could be required to activate Rac Rho small GTPases. Regulatory GTPases in the Ras superfamily employ a cycle of alternating GTP binding and hydrolysis, controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), as essential features of their actions in cells. Within the Ras superfamily, the Arf family is composed of 30 members, including 22 Arf-like (Arl) proteins. The ELMO domain has been proposed to be a GAP domain for ARL2 and other members of the Arf family [ PUBMED:17452337 ].

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Pfam-B_3095 (release 7.5)
Previous IDs: DUF609;
Type: Family
Sequence Ontology: SO:0100021
Author: Mifsud W
Number in seed: 203
Number in full: 5386
Average length of the domain: 162.90 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 28 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 32.57 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 57096847 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 23.3 23.3
Trusted cut-off 23.6 23.4
Noise cut-off 22.9 23.1
Model length: 172
Family (HMM) version: 15
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Species distribution

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Archea Archea Eukaryota Eukaryota
Bacteria Bacteria Other sequences Other sequences
Viruses Viruses Unclassified Unclassified
Viroids Viroids Unclassified sequence Unclassified sequence


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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the ELMO_CED12 domain has been found. There are 5 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.

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