Summary: TAF RNA Polymerase I subunit A
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "TBP-associated factor". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
TBP-associated factor Edit Wikipedia article
|TBP associated factor (TAF6)|
|SCOP2||1bh9 / SCOPe / SUPFAM|
The TBP-associated factors (TAF) are proteins that associate with the TATA-binding protein in transcription initiation. It is a part of the transcription initiation factor TFIID multimeric protein complex. It also makes up many other factors, including SL1. They mediate the formation of the transcription preinitiation complex, a step preceding transcription of DNA to RNA by RNA polymerase II.
TFIID plays a central role in mediating promoter responses to various activators and repressors. It binds tightly to TAFII-250 and directly interacts with TAFII-40. TFIID is composed of TATA binding protein (TBP) and a number of TBP-associated factors (TAFS).
TAF is part of the TFIID complex, and interacts with the following:
- Specific transcriptional activators
- Basal transcription factors
- Other TAFIIs
- Specific DNA sequences, for example the downstream promoter element or gene-specific core promoter sequence
Due to such interactions, they contribute transcription activation and to promoter selectivity.
Some pairs of TAF interact with each other to form "lobes" in TFIID. Pairs known or suggested to exist in TFIID include TAF6-TAF9, TAF4-TAF12, TAF11-13, TAF8-TAF10 and TAF3-TAF10.
Selective factor 1 is composed of the TATA-binding protein and three TAF (TATA box-binding protein-associated factor) subunits (TAF1A, TAF1B, and TAF1C). These TAFs do not have a histone-like fold domain.
This section is missing information about subunits of SAGA and related complexes, and pair-forming therein.(April 2019)
TAF is a part of SAGA (SPT-ADA-GCN5 acetylase) and related coactivation complexes. Such complexes acetylate histone tails to activate genes. Human has three SAGA-like complexes: PCAF, TFTC (TBP-free TAF-containing complex), and STAGA (SPT3-TAF9-GCN5L acetylase). PCAF (GCN5) and KAT2A (GCN5L) are two human homologs of the yeast Gcn5.
This section is missing information about TAFs in non-TF2D complexes.(April 2019)
- TAF1 (TAFII250)
- TAF2 (CIF150)
- TAF3 (TAFII140)
- TAF4 (TAFII130/135)
- TAF4B (TAFII105)
- TAF5 (TAFII100)
- TAF6 (TAFII70/80)
- TAF6L (PAF65A)
- TAF7 (TAFII55)
- TAF8 (TAFII43)
- TAF9 (TAFII31/32)
- TAF9B (TAFII31L)
- TAF10 (TAFII30)
- TAF11 (TAFII28)
- TAF12 (TAFII20/15)
- TAF13 (TAFII18)
- TAF15 (TAFII68)
TAF domains are spread out across many digital signatures:
- Xie X, Kokubo T, Cohen SL, Mirza UA, Hoffmann A, Chait BT, Roeder RG, Nakatani Y, Burley SK (March 1996). "Structural similarity between TAFs and the heterotetrameric core of the histone octamer". Nature. 380 (6572): 316â€“22. Bibcode:1996Natur.380..316X. doi:10.1038/380316a0. PMIDÂ 8598927. S2CIDÂ 4329570.
- DemÃ©ny MA, Soutoglou E, Nagy Z, Scheer E, JÃ noshÃ zi A, Richardot M, Argentini M, Kessler P, Tora L (March 2007). "Identification of a small TAF complex and its role in the assembly of TAF-containing complexes". PLOS ONE. 2 (3): e316. Bibcode:2007PLoSO...2..316D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000316. PMCÂ 1820849. PMIDÂ 17375202.
- Furukawa T, Tanese N (September 2000). "Assembly of partial TFIID complexes in mammalian cells reveals distinct activities associated with individual TATA box-binding protein-associated factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (38): 29847â€“56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002989200. PMIDÂ 10896937.
- Friedrich JK, Panov KI, Cabart P, Russell J, Zomerdijk JC (August 2005). "TBP-TAF complex SL1 directs RNA polymerase I pre-initiation complex formation and stabilizes upstream binding factor at the rDNA promoter". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (33): 29551â€“8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M501595200. PMCÂ 3858828. PMIDÂ 15970593.
- Bonnet J, Wang CY, Baptista T, Vincent SD, Hsiao WC, Stierle M, Kao CF, Tora L, Devys D (September 2014). "The SAGA coactivator complex acts on the whole transcribed genome and is required for RNA polymerase II transcription". Genes & Development. 28 (18): 1999â€“2012. doi:10.1101/gad.250225.114. PMCÂ 4173158. PMIDÂ 25228644.
- Martinez E, Palhan VB, Tjernberg A, Lymar ES, Gamper AM, Kundu TK, Chait BT, Roeder RG (October 2001). "Human STAGA complex is a chromatin-acetylating transcription coactivator that interacts with pre-mRNA splicing and DNA damage-binding factors in vivo". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (20): 6782â€“95. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.20.6782-6795.2001. PMCÂ 99856. PMIDÂ 11564863.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
TAF RNA Polymerase I subunit A Provide feedback
TATA box binding protein associated factor RNA Polymerase I subunit A is found in eukaryotes and is encoded by the gene TAF1A in humans. Its function is to aid transcription of DNA into RNA by binding to the promoter at the -10 TATA box site. It is a component of the transcription factor SL1/TIF-IB complex, involved in PIC assembly (pre-initiation complex) during RNA polymerase I-dependent transcription. The rate of PIC formation depends on the rate of association of this protein. This protein also stabilises nucleolar transcription factor 1/UBTF on rDNA.
Comai L, Zomerdijk JC, Beckmann H, Zhou S, Admon A, Tjian R;, Science. 1994;266:1966-1972.: Reconstitution of transcription factor SL1: exclusive binding of TBP by SL1 or TFIID subunits. PUBMED:7801123 EPMC:7801123
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR039495
TATA box binding protein associated factor RNA Polymerase I subunit A is found in eukaryotes and is encoded by the gene TAF1A in humans. Its function is to aid transcription of DNA into RNA by binding to the promoter at the -10 TATA box site. It is a component of the transcription factor SL1/TIF-IB complex, involved in PIC assembly (pre-initiation complex) during RNA polymerase I-dependent transcription. The rate of PIC formation depends on the rate of association of this protein. This protein also stabilises nucleolar transcription factor 1/UBTF on rDNA [ PUBMED:7801123 ].
This entry also includes TAF1A homologues from plants.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
Tetratricopeptide-like repeats are found in a numerous and diverse proteins involved in such functions as cell cycle regulation, transcriptional control, mitochondrial and peroxisomal protein transport, neurogenesis and protein folding.
The clan contains the following 252 members:14-3-3 AAR2 Aconitase_B_N Adaptin_N Alkyl_sulf_dimr ANAPC3 ANAPC5 ANAPC8 Apc1_MidN APC_rep API5 Aquarius_N Arm Arm_2 Arm_3 Arm_vescicular Atx10homo_assoc B56 BAF250_C BRO1 BTAD CAS_CSE1 ChAPs CHIP_TPR_N CID CLASP_N Clathrin Clathrin-link Clathrin_H_link Clathrin_propel Cnd1 Cnd1_N Cnd3 CNOT1_CAF1_bind CNOT1_HEAT_N CNOT1_TTP_bind Coatomer_E Cohesin_HEAT Cohesin_load ComR_TPR COPI_C CPL CRM1_C CRM1_repeat CRM1_repeat_3 Cse1 CTK3 CTNNBL Cullin DHR-2_Lobe_A DHR-2_Lobe_C DIL DNA-PKcs_N DNA_alkylation DNAPKcs_CC1-2 DNAPKcs_CC3 DNAPKcs_CC5 Dopey_N Drf_FH3 Drf_GBD DUF1822 DUF2019 DUF2225 DUF3385 DUF3458_C DUF3730 DUF3856 DUF4042 DUF4704 DUF5071 DUF5106 DUF5588 DUF5691 DUF6340 DUF6377 DUF6584 DUF924 E_motif EAD11 eIF-3c_N ELMO_ARM EST1 EST1_DNA_bind FA_FANCE FANCF FANCI_HD1 FANCI_HD2 FANCI_S1 FANCI_S1-cap FANCI_S2 FANCI_S3 FANCI_S4 FAT Fes1 Fis1_TPR_C Fis1_TPR_N Focadhesin Foie-gras_1 GET4 GLE1 GUN4_N HAT HEAT HEAT_2 HEAT_EZ HEAT_PBS HEAT_UF HemY_N HMW1C_N HPS6_C HrpB1_HrpK HSM3_C HSM3_N Hyccin IBB IBN_N IFRD Iml2-TPR_39 Importin_rep Importin_rep_2 Importin_rep_3 Importin_rep_4 Importin_rep_5 Importin_rep_6 Insc_C Ints3_N KAP Kinetochor_Ybp2 Laa1_Sip1_HTR5 Leuk-A4-hydro_C LRV LRV_FeS MA3 Mad3_BUB1_I MAP3K_TRAF_bd MIF4G MIF4G_like MIF4G_like_2 MIX MMS19_C Mo25 MRP-S27 Mtf2 MUN NatA_aux_su Neurobeachin Neurochondrin Nic96 Nipped-B_C Not1 Nro1 NSF Paf67 ParcG PAT1 PC_rep PDS5 Peptidase_M9_N PHAT PI3Ka PknG_TPR PPP5 PPR PPR_1 PPR_2 PPR_3 PPR_long PPTA Proteasom_PSMB PUF PUL RAI16-like Rapsyn_N Rcd1 RIH_assoc RINT1_TIP1 RIX1 RNPP_C RPM2 RPN6_N RPN7 RYDR_ITPR Sel1 SHNi-TPR SIL1 SLT_L SNAP SPO22 SRP_TPR_like ST7 STAG Suf SusD-like SusD-like_2 SusD-like_3 SusD_RagB SYCP2_ARLD SYMPK_PTA1_N TAF1_subA TAF6_C TAL_effector TAP42 TAtT Tcf25 TIP120 TOM20_plant TPR-S TPR_1 TPR_10 TPR_11 TPR_12 TPR_14 TPR_15 TPR_16 TPR_17 TPR_18 TPR_19 TPR_2 TPR_20 TPR_21 TPR_22 TPR_3 TPR_4 TPR_5 TPR_6 TPR_7 TPR_8 TPR_9 TPR_MalT Tra1_ring TRF TTC7_N Type_III_YscG UNC45-central Upf2 Uso1_p115_head V-ATPase_H_C V-ATPase_H_N Vac14_Fab1_bd Vitellogenin_N Vps16_C Vps35 Vps39_1 VPS53_C W2 Wap1 WSLR Wzy_C_2 Xpo1 YcaO_C YfiO Zmiz1_N
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the UniProtKB sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Seed source:||Jackhmmer: Q15573|
|Author:||Coggill P , Hetherington K|
|Number in seed:||34|
|Number in full:||786|
|Average length of the domain:||347.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||25 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||72.74 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||9|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.
|Protein||Predicted structure||External Information|
|A0A0R0GH19||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|A0A1D6LW29||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|F4HPS6||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|I1LV43||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|K7M292||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|P97357||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q15573||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q3B7U2||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q5SP02||View 3D Structure||Click here|
|Q654G8||View 3D Structure||Click here|
The structural model below was generated by the Baker group with the trRosetta software using the Pfam UniProt multiple sequence alignment.
The InterPro website shows the contact map for the Pfam SEED alignment. Hovering or clicking on a contact position will highlight its connection to other residues in the alignment, as well as on the 3D structure.
- View the contact map and structural model in InterPro
- Download the model in PDB format
- Download all the data from the Pfam FTP site